what is the phylum, order, family and sub family or nematodes of equine
sf- cyanthostominae (small strongyles)
strongylinae (large strongyles)
What migration route does small strongyles take?
There are as many as __ species of the sub family large strongyles known as Stronglinae and as many as 15 to 20 different species can commonly be found in one host
all strongyles are knonw as __ or __
blood worms or red worms
What are the 3 large strongyles?
1. Strongylus vulgaris
2. Stongylus equinus
3. Strongylus edentatus
How do larger strongyles travel through the body?
What is the Strongyloides found in horse and pig?
What is the Strongyloides found in cow?
What are some caracteristics of Strongylus vulgaris?
1. smallest of all three primary stongyles
2. most pathogenic
3. Shortest prepatent period of 6 months
4. smallest of the eggs
5. migration via the intestinal arterial system leads to colic and death
6. S. vulgaris is the most common cause of death due to colic as well as cause of colic in us.
What is the migration of Strongylus vulgaris?
3rd stage larvae is ingested by the horse
3rd stage cast its covering and enters wall of the cecum and ventral colon
Larvae penetrates to submucosa and 3rd molt to 4th stage
4th stage now penetrates small arteries and aorta and will wander progessively through (mysteriously) to the cranial mesenteric artery (a major supplier to intestines)
after 2-4 months of migration, the 4th stage enters the surrounding tissue and molts to 5th stage.
The pathology of Strongylus vulgaris is in the movement of the ___ resulting in inflammation of arteries, clots and moving clots that block the flow of blood
4th stage larvae
___ the 3rd stage larvae burrows into the wall of the gut and reaches the liver via portal veins. Larvae makes way back to the cecum and into the bowel lumen
__ the 3rd stage larvae molts in the intestinal wall and then 4th stage then makes its way to the right half of the liver, next to the cecum. the 4th molt occurs 4 months later and the adults reenter the lumen of the larger intestines to mate and produce eggs.
There are about __ species of small strongyles and almost all can parasitize the equine; however like Toxascaris leonina, they do not migrate vscerally like the large strongyles
__ larvae burrow into the intestinal wall and lay dormant waiting for the proper time to emerge. During this encysted period, unlike the adult parasites, small strongyles larvae are not susceptible to most deworms.
__ is a parasite with a direct life cycle, they like the strongyles inhabit the cecum and the colon of the horse.
__ inhabits the appendix of the humans, also the large intestines and female genitalia
Enterobius vermicularis is known as "__"
"seatworm of man"
Oxyuris equi is known as
__ is known as itchy anus
Pruritus ani, caused by the eggs attached to the skin around the anus causes the major problem
__ is not common, but is mentioned since it is an oxyurid of the horse and its entire life cycle is completed in one location, the large intestines
Probstmayria vivipara is known as the..
"The minute pinworm"
Adult females of Probstmayria vivipara produces __ __ __
sexually mature offspring
__ is the only ascard in the equine and is the largest of all ascarids of all domestic animals
__ are found in the anterior part of the small intestines
Toxocara and __ go through the same transtracheal migratory route
There are two primaries -Gasterophilus species- (three total) :Name them
1. Gasterophilus intestinalis
2. Gasterophilus nasalis
3. Gasterophilus haemorrhoidails
The adult flies of Gasterophilus sp. have __ mouth parts and cannot feed, living only to mate and deposit eggs on the second horse
Gasterophilus sp. existence in 3 different forms: name them
Fly-- Eggs-- Larvae = 1 year total
Male and female flies of Gasterophilus intestinalis reproduce laying eggs on the haris of the __ and __
forelegs and shoulders
After 5 days of Gasterophilus intestinalis sitting on the horses forelimb, the horse consumes the eggs with hatch and migrate to the __ in the mouth
dorsal surface of the tongue
Larvae of G. intestinalis remain in the tongue for __ days and then move to the lumen to be swallowed
Intestinalis will attach to the __ and live for about 11 months.
Female and male flies reproduce with eggs being laid on the intermandibular spaces
Eggs of G. nasalis hatch in 5 days, crawl towards the mouth and then __
between the lips
In about __ weeks G. nasalis will move to the lumen and be swallowed, the larvae will attach to the duodenum.
__ the flies they their eggs on the lips, these hatch in 2-4 days when the horse is drinking water.
When is customary to deworm your horse?
one month after the first frost
__ is the intestinal threadworm of the horse, and is far less complex than the intestinal threadworm of the dog
Foals and pigs are the two domestic animals most commonly infected via nursing 4-7 days after foaling, name this parasite
__ is the second worm shared with another species besides S. westeri.
nick name for Trichostrongylus axei
minute stomach worm
__this infection can result in ulcers, weight loss, anorexia, hemorrhage and can kill the host
__ is zoonotic and has a high incidence in asia
This family has four members that share the abomasum with T. axei.
What does the Family of Spiruroidea include?
What are the two flies that transmit Habronemasis and Drachia?
Stomyxcalcitrans- Stable fly
Musca domestica- domestic house fly
Habronema and Drashia can perpetrate the host in what two ways?
1. larvae on the skin will invade the tissue and cause "summer sore"
2. Flys that are consumed enter the GI tract and produce catarrhal gastritis with musus production.
What is the intermediate host for horses with tapeworms?
why do you have to use special deworms in dogs/cats with tapeworm but not horse/cow?
because they dont have teeth or "hooks" in the horse and cow
What four nematodes belong to the family Trichostrongyloidea?
__ of ruminants are Nematodes of the Order strongylida
Virtually all __ animals are infected with strongylid parasties
Are there ascarids in ruminants?
What is the hookworm for cattle?
What is the hookworm for sheep and goats
What are two ways the ruminant host can be infective with hookworms?
1. skin penetration
2. swallowing the larvae from food and water
Two members are incriminated as true trouble childern for cows and sheep, also known as "nodular worm disease"
1. Oesophagostomum columbianum
2. Oesophagostomum radiatum
__Larvae are consumed and mature in the intestines and pass to the large intestines where they penetrate the wall and form black nodules
__similar to the sheep nodular worm but these nodules are formed in the small intestines
What lung worms of ruminants belong to the Family Trichostongyloidea
Super family-- __ -- is another lungworm that inhabits the lung of the ruminant but is classified as a super family since it has an indirect lifecylce requiring the earthworm or snail.
__ is a member of the metastrongyloidea super family known as a lungworm, but can inhabit the circulatory system in other species
Most verminous pneumonias attributed to "lungworms" is a direct result of __
What is the lungworm lifecycle?
eggs laid in the lungs
eggs may hatch or may be passed
eggs are coughed up, swallowed and passed
eggs hatch in soil and larvae are consumed
larvae penetrates the intestines- blood- lungs
What is the roundworm of swine
What is the roundworm of man
What is the lifecycle of Ascaris suum similar to?
Like the roundworm of Toxocara and Parascairs, Ascaris suum live in the __
the lifecycle that produces the condition known as "thumbs" is--
Transtracheal migration of intestines
What percent of the worlds population is positive for Ascaris lumbricoides?
__ is known as the "common kidney worm" is unique in that it has a direct and indirect lifecycle
What is the intermediate host for Stephanurus dentatus?
The worm of this parasite occupies the kidney and produce oval eggs that pass out with the urine and incubate in the soil.
The larvae of Stephanurus dentatus may do what to parasitize another animal?
1. penetrate skin
2. be consumed
3. or be picked up by a earthworm as a faculative intermediate host
This parasite is the 2nd most common in pigs
What is primary route of infection for Strongyloides ransomi, suis, and westeri