AAS 16 Final

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AAS 16 Final
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2012-06-13 12:11:07
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AAS 16 Final Review Flashcards
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  1. Why has video film supplanted the book in West
    Africa?
    • Insufficient gov spending
    • on edu and authors find it difficult to get published and to generate
    • local readership.
  2. What is responsible for the growing incidence of
    serialization in West African video films?
    • Commercialization of
    • narriative
  3. How is serialization of narratives tied to the
    technology of video filmmaking in Ghana and Nigeria?
    Video film tech enables the production of a particular type of narriative, also cheap to reproduce.
  4. What are the two types of short serials found in
    West African video film
    Social issues drama and domestic drama
  5. What led to the movement from live performance to television, to celluloid production and video film in Nigeria?
    • Stemmed from a desire on
    • the part of those actually creating narratives for performance to find a
    • technology over which they
    • excercised direct contron. Also hped that this tech would deliver more of
    • the profits from marketing such narratives directly to them.
  6. What kind of practices do serialized narratives
    on video film show?
    • Practices considered
    • controversial and scandalous; prostitution, incest, murder of family
    • members, homosexuality, infidelity, political impropriety, the breaking
    • of religious vows, etc.
  7. How does the first installment of a video film
    narrative usually end?
    • Ends with an evil deed of
    • such egregious proportions that it begs for justice.
  8. What kind of female characters predominate in
    these films?
    The victim and the bad girl
  9. What impact do small-scale investors have on the
    stories presented in Nigerian and Ghanaian video film production?
    • Results in the
    • melodramatic plots, cliffhanger endings, tendency to typecast actors
    • focus on sanal and recourse to supernatural forms of justice. Must more
    • consciously treat their artistic work as a commercial commodity designed
    • to sell to the largest number of potential consumers.
  10. Why are narratives in produced and distributed
    in Ghana and Nigeria more likely to appear in video cassette or video CD
    format?
    • Access to video film does
    • not depend on advanced literacy and reading can be undertaken as a leisure
    • activity for the group rather than individual.
  11. Do the Juju performers have a fixed location for
    their performances?
    Either in city where host works or in his community of origin
  12. At what kinds of ceremonies do Juju bands
    perform?
    • Funerals,
    • Yoruba neotraditional celebrations (ariya), weddings, naming ceremonies
  13. Does the Juju performance take place in doors?
    No, large open space near house or compound
  14. What kinds of activities occur at the onset of
    the ariya? What is the general format for the evening?
    • Majority of guests already seated and have been served food/beverages, series of speeches by important participants praising hosts and honorees.speeches may be preceded by performance by band. Costumed comedians sometimes hired to perform.
    • General format: dance floor cleared, people dance, six to seven hours of music.
  15. When do juju performances start in earnest, and
    how long do they usually last?
    Start around 10 or 11 and last 6 to 7 hrs.
  16. Who are the first people to dance, and what is
    their style of dancing and dressing?
    First to dance are primary celebrants dressed in imported fabric printed with matching patterns symbolizing membership in a kin group or voluntary association.
  17. Doall the members of the band sing together throughout the Juju performance?
    Captain sings solo phrases segments of which are harmonized by chorus, also call and response sections.
  18. What instruments are used to complement the song
    texts performed by the band? (182). What is the most important percussion
    instrument in the band?
    • Single membrane hand beaten drums such as ogido, gombe, akuba, agbamole, samba. Not amplified.
    • Most important percussuion instrument is adamon pressure drum.
  19. In addition to drummers, which other kinds of
    musicians play a critical role in juju performances?
    Guitarists
  20. How does the first group of dancers respond to
    the band captain and to one another once the performance has started?
    • Money pressed to forehead of recipient (sway and
    • spray).
  21. Towards whom is most of the spraying at an ariya
    directed, and what does it express? What percentage of total earnings does a juju band earn from spraying?
    • Musicians as response to praise singing and
    • drumming. Provide 50% of earnings.
  22. Where do competent Juju musicians get the
    information they use in praise singing?
    In some cases host provides captain with written list of key participats, in others band manager attemps to collect info from seated guests then whispers in aptains ear or attaches sheet of paper to mic stand.
  23. What are the major themes of Juju song texts?
    Prayer, money, honor, individual destiny, jealousy, competition, praising of well known celebrants, and abusing of their enemies and rivals through proverbs.
  24. What happens to the person who is being praised and refuses to go up and give money to the band? How do people who are expensively dressed come prepared for an ariya?
    Risks stimulating deleterious gossip concerning his character and financial status.
  25. How are the traditional speech formulas adapted to Juju performance and why is this done?
    Often shortened and simplified to produce patterns appropriate for dance music and to facilitate comprehension by younger listeners.
  26. Are the speech formulas used by juju bands always specific to particular individuals and contexts?
    No some are very general and may be used in any context, other are appropriate only in certain contexts.
  27. How do juju singers use verbal formulas to boost the reputation of the praisee or a person being praised?
    Attack his or her enemies (targets of praise explicitly named, objects of abuse are not)
  28. How does the juju performance end?
    End entropically, players jumbling their pattersn and creating a chaotic mass of sound. Money is counted and shares handed out, equipment is packed up and loaded onto the band vehicle.
  29. What does the word taarab denote in Swahili?
    Swahili equivalent of Arabic word tarab, implies concepts of entertainment, enchantment, emotion filled movement, and delight.
  30. Does taarab focus on the bride and groom at a wedding? What is taarab used for?
    Little to do with bride/groom, used as social space in which local values, concerns, and relations are mobilized, discussed, evaluated, and reconfigured.
  31. What do taarab songs touch on?
    • Touch on diff topics of life relevant to social contexts outside the wedding
    • concerns of humans in general
    • specific social issues of local community.
  32. What kind of statement is a host family making by hiring an expensive taarab band?
    they are making a public statement about their social status
  33. What kind of difference exists between the kind
    of taarab performance that families select depending on whether they identify
    more with Arabic culture, or with African culture?
    If more Arabic: entails listening rather than dancing

    • More african: audience more given to dancing than
    • listening
  34. How does the taarab band respond to requests
    from the crowd?
    • Singer notifies other members by just mentioning title
    • and scheduled list of songs is changed.
  35. How are taarab songs performed live different
    from recorded songs?
    • Life longer (10 vs 4 minutes) and include a 3-5
    • minute guitar and drum ensemble
  36. How do members of the audience show their
    appreciation to individual performers during a taarab performance?
    • Dance towards band and give money to one of the
    • performers and dance back.
  37. Which gender is most involved in dancing at a taarab
    performance?
    women
  38. What do taarab band members do with the money
    paid through tips and paid by the host family?
    • Money shared equally after band has paid off any hired
    • equipment and other costs. Others say according to positions in band where owner or bandleader gets larger share.
  39. What kinds of things does Elesin ask for from the
    market women and especially from Iyaloja? Do his actions suggest that he is thinking about the pleasures of life, or the reward of death?
    • At the market, Elesin asks for garments and the company of women. He even asks for Iyaloja’s hand in marriage. Elesin is thinking about
    • the pleasures of life.
  40. What actions suggest that the Pilkings are either
    respectful or not respectful towards Yoruba culture?
    The Pilkings speak to the Yoruba as if they respect them, but they try to force their culture and religion upon the Yoruba. They say the Yoruba culture is “savage.”
  41. How did Olunde end up becoming a student in Britain?
    Was he compelled to go there by Simon Pilkings or by his father?
    • Olunde “escaped” with the help of Pilkings and went to
    • England to study medicine.
  42. Did Olunde return home with an intention of committing
    suicide?
    No. Olunde was going to bury his father.
  43. Why does Olunde commit suicide in the end?
    Olunde wanted to restore the honor of his people and culture especially his family.
  44. Why does Elesin commit suicide in the end?
    • Elesin commits suicide for honor and grief. He knew it was
    • his fault that Olunde died in his stead.
  45. For Fela, is performance something that is separate from life? How does Fela use the traditional African concept of art and music?
    No. He sees traditional African art and music as being an integral component of both ordinary and extraordinary human activity
  46. What other cultures was Fela exposed to while growing up apart from traditional culture?
    the West and Nigeria; Emerging urban, bourgeois culture that was influenced by Western values.
  47. Which kinds of popular musicians did Fela look up to as models?
    social orchestras, highlife bands, juju bands, marching bands, jazz groups, and others, many of whom were primarily entertainers at clubs, parties, and other social functions
  48. Why was Fela’s music not particularly popular during the 1960s?
    His music was neither the pure entertainment of the popular dance bands nor was it connected with the socially meaningful traditional music
  49. What kinds of musical styles did Fela amalgamate to form Afrobeat
    jazz, the funk of American soul singer/bandleader James Brown, highlife, traditional rhythms, and chanted declamatory vocals
  50. Identify the different musical instruments played by members of Fela’s band, Afrika 70.
    horns, percussions, electric guitar, electric bass, electric keyboards and electric saxaphones
  51. How were Fela’s lyrics different from the lyrics of other popular musicians, or that of juju artists?
    he sent uncompromising messages of pointed social commentary
  52. Give a brief description of a live show at Fela’s club called the shrine
    very free like a nightclub, clouded with smoke, deep electric basses and instruments, music charged with social commentary, and women dancing spontaneously and freely to the music
  53. Was Fela’s flouting of local conventions seen as traditional?
    No
  54. How does Fela differentiate music in England from the kind of music he played?
    The music in England is about enjoyment and pleasure, whereas Fela’s music was mostly politically charged
  55. For Fela, what is the paramount struggle for Africans?
    the battle against Western cultural imperialism
  56. Which kind of singers and instruments continued to be one of Mali’s most powerful musical forces up to the 1950s?
    Jelimuso singers backed by ensembles of jeli instruments including the guitar.
  57. Which singers went on to solo careers in Abidjan and Paris in the mid-1980s?
    The band leaders from Les Ambassadeurs, National Badema and Rail Band. Salif Keita, Mory Kante, and Kasse Mady Diabate.
  58. What kinds of instruments were used in the popular dance events organized in the 1960s, called ‘Apollos’?
    Congo, electrical guitar, bass guitar, Western drum sets.
  59. What instruments did the Lafiabouou twins embrace which brought the jeli tradition in line with modern urban Bamako life?
    the bala and the guitar
  60. How was modernization of music defined in Guinea and Mali?
    Was based on this process of assimilating local traditions into Latin America-based dance orchestras.
  61. What was the goal behind forming the famous Rail Band?
    Aim of “transposing” traditional music onto modern instruments. (It would bring Malian music away from French and Latin American influences and back to its roots—to “revalorize the cultural patrimony”)
  62. What singing and playing style did Salif Keita embrace?
    Jeli Style
  63. What kind of family did Mory Kante come from?
    A distinguished family of jelis
  64. What kind of song was Mandjou, the famous hit written by Salif Keita?
    A praise song for Guinean president Sekou
  65. What kind of changes did musicians like Manfila Kante, and Salif Keita, as well as the band, Les Ambassadeurs bring to Malian music?
    Keita(and Kante’s partnership) brought a classic era of modern electric Malian music(early 1970s-80s), injecting the local Muslim-tinged praise singing tradition for which the jeli are known.

    • Les
    • Ambassadeurs(Kante’s) reconciled their ties to Mande culture with the modern sensibilities of urban Africa.

    Kante(from traditions of jeli), integrated the bala style of playing on the electric guitar and understood the application of that style in an orchestra with a bass, drum set, keyboard, and bass instruments.
  66. What particular aspect of the performance by Blackface and McKnowledge seemed to leave a special impression on the crowd in Cape Town?
    The use of Xhosa language in the poems and songs
  67. How is contemporary South African hip hop seen as different from the ‘old skool’ hip hop which emerged in Cape Town during the 1980s?
    often perceived as a commodified entity, in contrast to the ‘old skool’ of politically conscious anti-apartheid hip-hop
  68. What kind of identity did some hip hop groups form during the final years of apartheid?
    an identity based on resistance to the oppressive laws of apartheid
  69. What is distinctive about the section of township called Marcus Garvey
    A high number of residents adhere to the Rastafarian belief system
  70. How does the rapper, Blackface think performers should look? Which cultures do the attire and hairstyles adopted by rappers like Blackface reference?
    He believes they should look unique and presentable to his audience. They reference both African and African American cultures.
  71. How was the hip hop show in Gulugetu different from the hip hop shows in Marcus Garvey?
    The style of dress, audience, setting, language and environment all differed. All the dancing took place outside.
  72. What did Blackface criticize about the type of hip hop performed in Gulugetu?
    commented that the tone of language used by the artists was like a ‘nigga accent’ emphasising a decided American-ness
  73. What aspects of hip hop are most important in the townships, and which aspects of hip hop are absent from the townships? What are the township artists focused on?
    The most important aspects in the township are emceeing and rapping. Skateboarding, graffiti and breakdancing are absent.

    The township artists are focused on performing, they practice almost daily and rap in their own language.
  74. How do township hip hop artists view commercial hip hop and underground rappers who rap entirely in English?
    They are regarded as lacking sense of local identity, which they call ‘slackness’.
  75. What kind of things do township hip hop artists sing about?
    sing about social problems related to poverty and crime but also about topics which they regard as inspiring positive consciousness for the "people"
  76. What are the three ways in which rappers from Marcus Garvey broaden the notion of African identity?
    First, their practiced claim to use of an African language and ostensibly African clothing and hair styles within a global, cultural form, second through addressing contemporary social and political issues and last through forming and taking active part in multicultural social circles.
  77. According to Daniel Kunzler, why has hip hop remained mainly an urban male phenomenon?
    Because the rap lyrics represent mainly the male perspectives on social and political problems.
  78. Who or what are the jeliw in Manding society?
    The hereditary professional musicians of the Manding peoples of W. Africa.

    Jeliw have roles as praise singers, dancers, public orators, interpreters, historians, genealogists, mediators, and political and = social advisers.
  79. Where does the music of famous Malian musicians like Salif Keita and Mory Kante derive from?
    Derived from the repertoire of the Manding jeliw.
  80. What type of performance venue is dominated by men, and what kind of performance context is dominated by women?
    Men dominate the club and restaurant scene, women mainly within traditional contexts( local music scene/urban centres).
  81. What is the major musical distinction between men and women among the Manding?
    Men specialize in history conveyed through spoken word(tarikou), women specialize in praise through song (fassa da, donkili da).
  82. What is the difference between the way men and men perform the story of Sunjata?
    Men can speak the story of Sunjata, women can only sing it. A man will tell the story and the women will sing the corresponding song at the right moment. If a man is present a women will never take the platform from him. Men convey the basic historical info, women embellish it. The speech: song gendered division in Manding music is reflected in the common practice whereby a man starts off the performance with a spoken intro., followed by a woman singing. Thus, women are free to introduce lighter genres and to concentrate on the beauty of the art itself.
  83. Which gender provides the stars of Malian music on television, radio, and the marketplace?
    Women
  84. What kinds of gifts have been provided to Jelimusow? How dependent are they on men?
    Cars, fully furnished houses, gold, large amounts of money, and in one case a small aeroplane. No, they are not dependent on men; independent women
  85. How do women differ from men in the way they present themselves during a performance?
    Men are usually seated playing an instrument, while women are mobile, singing directly to the object of their praises, often with dramatic theatrical gestures and outstretched arms.
  86. What kind of music is traditionally sing in Wassalou, and which gender traditionally plays and listens to this music?
    The music of Wassoulou is traditionally that of the hunters’ societies-played and msung by men only, for a male audience of listeners.
  87. Since independence, which gender has dominated the singing style of Wassalou?
    Women
  88. What is the fastest growing musical expression in Kenya today?
    Gospel Music
  89. What factors were responsible for the growth of gospel music in Kenya?
    a deteriorating socio-political and economic environment, the proliferation of the Neo-Pentescostal and Charismatic Churches, and the liberation of airwaves
  90. What styles of music are associated with gospel music and dance in Kenya?
    Gospel hymns, reggae, hip hop, rock and roll, and traditional Kenyan dances
  91. How is gospel music and dance in Kenya connected to local cultures?
    Gospel music maintains a strong Kenyan identity and has been culturally domesticated. Some of the rhythms and beats resonate with traditional Kenyan dance and music. Although the lyrics change, the dancing style is African and Kenyan in particular.
  92. Is gospel music in Kenya often sung in local languages?
    Yes
  93. What do critics of gospel music in Kenya have against it?
    they are against how it becomes very hard to draw the line between secular music and gospel music. Also, the boundaries between religon, entertainment and popular culture are becoming increasingly blurred. Critics claim that gospel music and dance and the youth dress code(relaxed dress and fashion conscious code) is gradually become a fad driven by Westernization, popular culture and foreign clichés, too worldly and un-Christian.
  94. What kinds of instruments and technology have been adopted by churches in Kenya?
    the electric guitar, electric keyboards, and sophisticated electronic sound systems
  95. What percentage of Kenya’s population is Christian?
    Over 70%
  96. Which gender predominates in Kenyan gospel and why is this?
    Females. The gospel world is a place where they can move with relative freedom and dignity, job opportunities and more women have found gospel music as a potent means of enhancing self-expression and self-determination. The dominance is a confirmation of their desire to contest to religious and cultural spaces in patriarchal and gerontocratic Kenyan society.
  97. How influential was music in the political campaigns in Kenya in 2002?
    very; The music was decisive, influential, and popular in campaigns; Secula and gospel songs such ‘Yote Yawezekana to’ ‘I am Unbwogable’ combines to strike a blow that ended nearly 4 decades of KANU’s rule and misrule.
  98. How
    are gospel music and dance now used by Kenyan politicians?
    as a mobilizing factor for change
  99. What kinds of issues do gospel musicians in Kenya address?
    social, political, economic, and religious issues such as HIV/AIDS, sexual abuse, corruption, ethnic clashes, drug abuse, poverty, bad governance, and economic hardships.
  100. What did the main opposition party to defeat the government proposed draft constitution in 2006?
    used gospel music and dance and petecostal churches helped defeat the government proposed draft constitution.
  101. How many traveling theater troupes existed in
    the 1970s and early 80s, and where were they mainly based?
    at least 100 troupes of traveling theater in Yoruba society
  102. mainly based in the big and medium sized cities, smaller Yoruba-speaking towns and villages were mnot left of their itineraries; they also regularly performed in other non Yoruba-speaking towns ad big cities of the West African coast, all the way to Freetown.
  103. From what sources did Duro Ladipo draw his
    inspiration for plays like Oba Koso, Moremi, Oba Waja?
    • ·
    • He was supported and encouraged by Ulli Beier, who in fact arranged for him to perform
    • the rejected Christmas cantata at Mbari Club. With Ulli Beier by his side,
    • Ladipo went into a lifelong career in the theater, composing and producing such
    • classics of the traveling theater as Oba Kaso, Moremi, and Oba Waja. In this
    • plays, Ladipo drew on Yoruba history and myths, and
    • traditional Yoruba secular and religious songs and dancers-all accompanied
    • by those “pagan” musical instruments. He also bought Yoruba
    • poetry to the center stage
  104. From what sources did Duro Ladipo draw his
    inspiration for plays like Oba Koso, Moremi, Oba Waja?
    • ·
    • He was supported and encouraged by Ulli Beier, who in fact arranged for him to perform
    • the rejected Christmas cantata at Mbari Club. With Ulli Beier by his side,
    • Ladipo went into a lifelong career in the theater, composing and producing such
    • classics of the traveling theater as Oba Kaso, Moremi, and Oba Waja. In this
    • plays, Ladipo drew on Yoruba history and myths, and
    • traditional Yoruba secular and religious songs and dancers-all accompanied
    • by those “pagan” musical instruments. He also bought Yoruba
    • poetry to the center stage
  105. What factors combined to discourage the theater
    groups from traveling during the late 1970s?
    • ·
    • The spread of television
    • and the increasing difficulties encountered on the road and in securing
    • performance venues combined to discourage the groups from traveling: why travel
    • around, with all the attendant risks, inconveniences, and economic
    • uncertainties, if you could secure a contract to perform on television for thirty
    • minutes once a week for ten or more weeks?
    • Television audience was bigger and wider
  106. What was the dominant technological medium for
    Yoruba plays by the end of the 1980s?
    • ·
    • By late of the 1980s, video
    • plays had become the dominant technological medium of popular culture
    • and entertainment in Yoruba urban centers.
  107. What kinds of adult material did traveling
    theater directors like Ogunde, Ogunmola and Ladipo inject into their plays?
    • ·
    • Ogunde was famous for his incantatory chants

    • ·
    • Lapipo dramatized important stories from Yoruba mythology and history

    • ·
    • Ogunmola” most successful play was an adaptation
    • of Amos Tutola’s The Palmwin Drinkard

    • ·
    • (never lost the folktale root)
  108. What genre of oral poetry became prominent in
    the theater?
    • ·
    • Oriki- name like
    • attribute epithets that are addressed to their subjects and are felt to
    • encapsulate and eoke in some way that subject’s essential powers and qualities

    • ·
    • transforms
  109. From what kinds of families did the early
    performers in traveling theater come from since Yoruba society had no actors?
    • ·
    • Famies of oje acrobats,
    • dancers or masqueraders, families of drummers
  110. Ladipo’s play, Oba Koso, is based on a Yoruba
    myth. What else did Ladipo add to turn this myth into total theater?
    • Turned the mixture of history,
    • religious, myth, and political legend that is Sango’s story into a total theater of spectacular scenery, hypnotic drumming and
    • dancing, spellbinding chants, from Ifa and the vast corpus of Yoruba in
    • cantatory poetry and acting
  111. What kinds of values are celebrated in these
    films?
    • ·
    • Celebrated commercial success
    • sand wealth accumulation and its display in multifarious ways
  112. What is the second main obsession of the video
    films?
    • ·
    • Women helped justified the power that men has,
    • the more wealth=more power=more women
  113. Do female directors and producers of films
    present women in roles that are different from those seen in films by male
    directors and producers?
    • ·
    • No, they do not
    • represent women’s role in a different perspective

    • ·
    • Instead, they are ingrained are the sexist
    • ideology and stereotypic image of women that they do not think of doing
    • something to encounter this negative image
  114. What is the function of the musical prologue
    from 7 to 9.15pm?
    • ·
    • Serves to attract
    • passerby into the bar and helps warm up both actors and public
  115. In general, where do concert party troupes put
    on their plays?
    • ·
    • In the bars
    • because there are large patios with covered slides
  116. Why do spectators sometimes come on stage?
    • ·
    • To give the actor a
    • visible sign of their approval, a coin which they pace on their actor’s
    • forehead. The spectator doesn’t touch the actor; he merely place his
    • coin on the latter’s forehead. The monetary exchange thus accomplishes the
    • mediation between the actor and the spectator.
  117. What kinds of roles does Pascal d’Almeida play?
    What other kinds of skills does he have as a performer?
    • ·
    • Playing diverse roles: excels
    • in that of the wicked stepmother
  118. What kinds of roles does Ben play?
    • ·
    • Interpret roles of a comedian in the prologue, a playboy and a prostitute

    • ·
    • Can play women

    • ·
    • Allusion to his interpretation of policemen of Yoruba origin, famous for their severity
  119. What feminine roles are popular in concert
    party? (
    • ·
    • Young, marriageable girl
    • who sometimes the unfaithful wife
  120. What role does music play in highlife?
    • ·
    • Music is the support
    • and often the vector.

    • ·
    • Band does not use just music drawn by chance
    • from a cosmopolitan repertory but always play highlife

    • ·
    • As a syncretism of traditional Akan rhythms, of
    • calypso and of jazz, highlife has become the most popular music on the coast of
    • Benin

    • ·
    • Rhythm of highlife
    • accompanies the entrance of each actor on stage

    • ·
    • Audience dances to the rhythm of highlife and
    • drinks beer. Highlife is the music of the good life, of
    • the high time in the bars of the big city
  121. What elements are used to create the powerful
    visual appeal of concert party?
    • ·
    • Creative use of color in
    • costumes and makeup
  122. What are most concert party stories about?
    • ·
    • All these elements-settings, actors, media are
    • combined in plots dealing mostly with family life


    • ·
    • Others include problems like polygamy, one of them being the frequent fostering of
    • children

    • ·
    • Channel of creative expression
  123. Is concert party connected to the ritual cult of
    Vodun?
    • ·
    • No, the concert
    • party has no connection to the cult of Vodun. Yet the members are reluctant to
    • explain the meaning of the facial masks and are equally reluctant to paint
    • their faces in broad daylight
  124. What kinds of things did the concert party
    groups have to spend money on?
    • ·
    • Musical instruments,
    • amplifiers, loudspeakers (maintenance, repair), transport conditions and
    • installation of the equipment

    • ·
    • Members- food , health, and spiritual welfare of the group by
    • making offerings to the voodoo priest

    • ·
    • advertising
  125. What are the advantages and disadvantages of
    playing frequently in the same hall?
    • ·
    • Advantages- attract a
    • regular audience and avoid moving around

    • ·
    • Disadvantage- you are
    • asking too much from the audience which is already paying one and half
    • times the guaranteed minimum wage per hour for a concert
  126. What were the various sources of income for the
    actors?
    • ·
    • Received grauity
    • (fixed once and all depending on their seniority in the company: this was known
    • as the fee

    • ·
    • Extremely successful
    • evenings: received bonus which might be higher than their normal salary

    • ·
    • Stars who managed to
    • move the audience with their songs pocketed the coins thrown to them or
    • placed directly on their foreheads y the spectators

    • ·
    • For good singers, these gifts might amount to
    • 500 francs, doubling or tripling the evening profits
  127. Why were the concert actors considered
    professionals rather than amateurs
    • ·
    • To Lome standards, it was not the sum of the
    • money and the activity of concert actors can be considered to have been part of
    • the economic circuit which made them professionals , not amateurs in search of
    • pocket money. They were also professionals in the sense that they were dedicated to their work. Commit
    • themselves to the concert intellectually and with devotion
  128. Was the audience for concert party mostly young
    or old, mostly male or female?
    • ·
    • Average age- around 20
    • (almost the same as the actor)

    • ·
    • Youth were in the
    • majority in towns, this reflected the concerts (both actors and among
    • audiences)

    • ·
    • Over a third were female
    • audience

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