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benign renal neoplasms are what kind of tumors
Are benign renal neoplasms encapsulated
no not encapsulated
What are some of the Benign Renal Neoplasms
Renal cortical adenoma, metanephric adenoma, oncocytoma, angiomyolipoma, nephroma
Renal Cell Carcinoma represents what % of renal cancer
What symptoms do Renal Cell carcinoma have
Often asymptomatic unti cancer is quite advanced
How does renal cell carcinoma do with therapies??
it is usually resistent to chemo, radiation, and immuno therapy
Nephroblastoma is called what ??
Nephroblastoma is most common in
most common childhood cancer
80% diagnosed before 5 yrs
a child w/ nephroblastoma usually complains of
abdominal pain and hematuria
if Nephroblastoma is missed it progressed to
the brain, liver, adrenal gland and bone
removal of one or both ovaries
tumors are usually detected w/
renal ultrasound and/or CT scan
what is the treatment of choic for renal tumors
Nephrectomy for both benign and malignant renal tumors
UTI is caused by what bacteria
enterobacter, enterococcus, proteu, klebseilla
What is the 2nd most common infection in the US
infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma usually due to an ascending UTI
What is the classic symptom of Pyelonephritis??
Costovertebral angle tenderness
What are the other S/S of Pyelonephritis
in an upper UTI what is an idicative sign opposed to a lower UTI??
Who is at risk for Acute Pyelonephritis
DM, anatomical abnormalities of urinary tract, obstructive causes and
Pregnant Women particularly
What is a complication with Acute Pyelonephritis??
Abscess formation is a complication pt can go into septic shock
Chronic Pyelonephritis is characterized by
small atrophied kidneys w/ diffues scarring
pt either got wrong drug or noncomplient in the sense where once symptoms go away pt stops taking antibiotic
Chronic Pyelonephritis leads to
interstitial inflammation leading to fibrosis of the kidney
Chronic pyelonephritis is usually associated w/
vesicoureteral reflux or obstructive processesleading to persistent urine stasis
Chronic pyelonephritis diagnosis by confirmation of
What is the process of Ascending infection of the kidneys
- 1. Bacteria enter the bladder (E.coli, Proteus, enerobacter)
- 2. going to vesicoureteral junction (deranged)
- 3. going to the intraranal reflux
- 4. making its way to the ureter
What is the proccess of Hematogenou infection of the kidneys
- 1. bacteris enters the blood (staphylococcus or E.coli)
- 2. causing asepticemia
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy is ...
an Enlarged prostate gland impeding urine flow
males overy 50
can be benign or malignant
Renal Calculi is known as
Renal Calculi are ...
kidney stones formed by crystallization w/in the urinary tract
Renal calculi have various types of minerals, what is the most common??
- Calcium oxalate
- uric acid
What can Renal Calculi resul it ??
permanent damage to kidneys causing ischemia in the kidneys
What are some general interventions for Nephrolithiasis??
- 1. Narcotic analgesics for pain management
- 2. Increased fluid intake (>2L/day; oral and/or IV)
- 3. Antimicrobials for UTI
- 4. Shock wave lithotripsy, urethral stenting, ureteroscopy for removal of large stones unable to pass spontaneously
- 5. Dietary modifications
- 6. Medication unique to stone composition (allopurinol for uric acid stones)
What are common causes of obstruction??
stones, tumors, prostatic hypertrophy, and strictures of the ureters or urethra
most common are renal stones
How do Stones tend to form??
tend to form in urinary tract under conditions of solute supersaturation, low urine volume, abnormal urine pH
What kind of stones are generally asymptomatic??
Stationary stones in the renal pelvis
Glomerulonephritis is due to an ..??
immune response to a variety of potential triggers and may have a primary or secondary etiology
glomerular capillary structure and function
glomerular damage may result in
some combination of hematuria, proteinuria, abnormal casts, decreased GFR, edema, and hypertension
Acute Glomerulonephritis is due to a ??
bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection
What happens in Acute Glomerulonephritis..??
- 1. bacteria, virus or parasitic infection
- 2. triggors antigen antibody response
- 3. which triggors a complement deposistion (inflammatory response)
Acute Glomerulonephritis is characterized by
varying degrees of hematuria, proteinuria, oliguria and azotemia, edema, and hypertension
Rapidly Progressing Glomerulonephritis is an..??
- Acute onset w/ hematuria, proteinuria, and red cell casts, followed by a rapid decline in renal
Chronic Glomerulonephritis is
•Persistent proteinuria and slowly declining renal function
•Leads to end-stage renal disease, requiring dialysis or transplantation
Chronic Glomerulonephritis requires
dialysis and/or transplantation
Nephrotic Syndrome is characterized by
–A glomerulopathy characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, edema, and a propensity for thrombus formation
What is the most common clinical manifestation if Nephrotic Syndrome??
What is the most common cause of Nephrotic Syndrome??
What is the most common cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in adults
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
Nephrotic syndrome resutls in urinary loss of ...
3-3.5g of protein per day
Proteinuris leads to ....
leads to hypoalbuminemia and generalized edema as a result to decreased blood colloid osmotic pressure
in Nephrotic Syndrome, Hyperlipidemia and hypercoagulabitity are thought to occur bc of
generalized increase in liver activity stimulated by hypoalbuminemia