lecture 10

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  1. benign renal neoplasms are what kind of tumors
    Benign tumores
  2. Are benign renal neoplasms encapsulated
    no not encapsulated
  3. What are some of the Benign Renal Neoplasms
    Renal cortical adenoma, metanephric adenoma, oncocytoma, angiomyolipoma, nephroma
  4. Renal Cell Carcinoma represents what % of renal cancer
  5. What symptoms do Renal Cell carcinoma have
    Often asymptomatic unti cancer is quite advanced
  6. How does renal cell carcinoma do with therapies??
    it is usually resistent to chemo, radiation, and immuno therapy
  7. Nephroblastoma is called what ??
    Wilms Tumor
  8. Nephroblastoma is most common in
    most common childhood cancer

    80% diagnosed before 5 yrs
  9. a child w/ nephroblastoma usually complains of
    abdominal pain and hematuria
  10. if Nephroblastoma is missed it progressed to
    the brain, liver, adrenal gland and bone
  11. oophorectomy
    removal of one or both ovaries
  12. tumors are usually detected w/
    renal ultrasound and/or CT scan
  13. what is the treatment of choic for renal tumors
    Nephrectomy for both benign and malignant renal tumors
  14. UTI is caused by what bacteria

    enterobacter, enterococcus, proteu, klebseilla
  15. What is the 2nd most common infection in the US
  16. Actue Pyelonephritis
    infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma usually due to an ascending UTI
  17. What is the classic symptom of Pyelonephritis??
    Costovertebral angle tenderness
  18. What are the other S/S of Pyelonephritis
    • fever
    • chills
    • N/A
    • anorexia
  19. in an upper UTI what is an idicative sign opposed to a lower UTI??
    WBC casts
  20. Who is at risk for Acute Pyelonephritis
    DM, anatomical abnormalities of urinary tract, obstructive causes and

    Pregnant Women particularly
  21. What is a complication with Acute Pyelonephritis??
    Abscess formation is a complication pt can go into septic shock
  22. Chronic Pyelonephritis is characterized by
    small atrophied kidneys w/ diffues scarring

    pt either got wrong drug or noncomplient in the sense where once symptoms go away pt stops taking antibiotic
  23. Chronic Pyelonephritis leads to
    interstitial inflammation leading to fibrosis of the kidney
  24. Chronic pyelonephritis is usually associated w/
    vesicoureteral reflux or obstructive processesleading to persistent urine stasis
  25. Chronic pyelonephritis diagnosis by confirmation of
    renal imaging
  26. What is the process of Ascending infection of the kidneys
    • 1. Bacteria enter the bladder (E.coli, Proteus, enerobacter)
    • 2. going to vesicoureteral junction (deranged)
    • 3. going to the intraranal reflux
    • 4. making its way to the ureter
  27. What is the proccess of Hematogenou infection of the kidneys
    • 1. bacteris enters the blood (staphylococcus or E.coli)
    • 2. causing asepticemia
  28. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy is ...
    an Enlarged prostate gland impeding urine flow

    males overy 50

    can be benign or malignant
  29. Renal Calculi is known as
  30. Renal Calculi are ...
    kidney stones formed by crystallization w/in the urinary tract
  31. Renal calculi have various types of minerals, what is the most common??
    • Calcium oxalate
    • struvite
    • uric acid
    • cystine
  32. What can Renal Calculi resul it ??
    permanent damage to kidneys causing ischemia in the kidneys
  33. What are some general interventions for Nephrolithiasis??
    • 1. Narcotic analgesics for pain management
    • 2. Increased fluid intake (>2L/day; oral and/or IV)
    • 3. Antimicrobials for UTI
    • 4. Shock wave lithotripsy, urethral stenting, ureteroscopy for removal of large stones unable to pass spontaneously
    • 5. Dietary modifications
    • 6. Medication unique to stone composition (allopurinol for uric acid stones)
  34. What are common causes of obstruction??
    stones, tumors, prostatic hypertrophy, and strictures of the ureters or urethra

    most common are renal stones
  35. How do Stones tend to form??
    tend to form in urinary tract under conditions of solute supersaturation, low urine volume, abnormal urine pH
  36. What kind of stones are generally asymptomatic??
    Stationary stones in the renal pelvis
  37. Glomerulonephritis is due to an ..??
    immune response to a variety of potential triggers and may have a primary or secondary etiology
  38. Glomerulopathies alter..??
    glomerular capillary structure and function
  39. glomerular damage may result in
    some combination of hematuria, proteinuria, abnormal casts, decreased GFR, edema, and hypertension
  40. Acute Glomerulonephritis is due to a ??
    bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection
  41. What happens in Acute Glomerulonephritis..??
    • 1. bacteria, virus or parasitic infection
    • 2. triggors antigen antibody response
    • 3. which triggors a complement deposistion (inflammatory response)
  42. Acute Glomerulonephritis is characterized by
    varying degrees of hematuria, proteinuria, oliguria and azotemia, edema, and hypertension
  43. Rapidly Progressing Glomerulonephritis is an..??
    • Acute onset w/ hematuria, proteinuria, and red cell casts, followed by a rapid decline in renal
    • function
  44. Chronic Glomerulonephritis is
    •Persistent proteinuria and slowly declining renal function

    •Leads to end-stage renal disease, requiring dialysis or transplantation
  45. Chronic Glomerulonephritis requires
    dialysis and/or transplantation
  46. Nephrotic Syndrome is characterized by
    –A glomerulopathy characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, edema, and a propensity for thrombus formation
  47. What is the most common clinical manifestation if Nephrotic Syndrome??
  48. What is the most common cause of Nephrotic Syndrome??
    Membranous Nephroathy
  49. What is the most common cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in adults
    Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
  50. Nephrotic syndrome resutls in urinary loss of ...
    3-3.5g of protein per day
  51. Proteinuris leads to ....
    leads to hypoalbuminemia and generalized edema as a result to decreased blood colloid osmotic pressure
  52. in Nephrotic Syndrome, Hyperlipidemia and hypercoagulabitity are thought to occur bc of
    generalized increase in liver activity stimulated by hypoalbuminemia
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lecture 10
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