Please identify the sections that make up the sternum
1. Suprasternal Notch
3. Sternal Angle (Angle of Louis - @ the level of 2nd intercostal space / 2nd rib)
5. Xiphoid Process
6. Sternocostal Angle
How many sets of ribs do we have? How many "true ribs"? "false ribs"? "floating ribs"?
7 True Ribs
3 False Ribs
2 Floating Ribs
What vertebral levels are the angles of the scapula laying on?
Superior Angle - T2
Root of Scapula Spine - T3
Inferior Angle - T7
At what level is the vertebral prominens located?
DU-14 / C7 spinous process
*but can sometimes be T1 spinous process
Where is the Lung apex located?
2-4 cm above medial third of clavicle
What level is the inferior border of the lung found?
Varies with respiration due to diaphragmatic excursion
*generally lower with COPD
How many lobes does the Left Lung have? Right Lung?
Left - 2 lobes
Right - 3 lobes
What vertebral level is the Carina located?
T4 spinous process posteriorly
This lines the outside of the Lung, it is not the part of the respiratory system
How may layers does the pleural membrane have?
Inner and outer
Air entering pleural space is called?
When air is introduced into the pleural space (during chest trauma from motor vehicle accident (MVA), or puncture of thoracic cavity as with an acupuncutre needle), a pleural cavity is created and the lung collapses (partially or totally)
Water entering the pleural space is called?
Pleural Effusion (edema)
What monitors CO2 levels of the blood?
Respiratory Control Center (RCC)
How long can one hold his breath?
Until CO2 gets to critical levels
Where does O2 and CO2 perform gas exchange?
Is breathing entirely voluntary or involuntary?
What is hyperactive in Hyperactive Airway Disease?
Bronchial Smooth Muscle
What are the most common Respiratory Conditions (Hyperactive Airway Disease)?
Asthma - the inability to exhale (bronchospasm / wheezing) (occurs during childhood --> early adulthood)
Chronic Bronchitis - inpairment of mucocilliary escalator - persistant cough, esp. in smokers (occurs during age >= 40-50 years)
COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - lose the abiltiy of elastic recoil (occurs during age >= 60 years)
A 5 year old child playing outdoors for hours and develops sudden wheezing. What does this person have?
A 60 year old smoker with shortness of breath and periodic wheezing. What does this person have?
A 45 year old with smokers cough. What does the person have?