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What are GI tract disorder manifestations??
- Esophageal pain
- Abdominal pain
- Intestinal gas
- Alterations in Bowel patterns
Difficulty in swallowing, possible w/ pain (odynophagia)
What are contributers to dysphagia
Neuromuscular problems, altered esophageal, lower esophageal shphincter dysfunction space occuptying lesion (cancer)
Esophageal Pain is
heartburn (pyrosis), from reflux of gastric contents into esophagus
Chest pain in esophageal pain is due to
- (due to distention of esophagus or spasmsof esophageal
- musculature, also esophageal reflux)
Abdominal pain may be ...
acute w/ sudden onset or have a gradual development
also may be associated w/ a peripheral ulcer (diverticulitis)
Vomiting is a forceful
expulsion of stomach contents, by diaphragm and abdominal muscles and reverse peristalsis of esophagus
Vomiting is the _____ of the muscles int the ____
constriction and diaphragm
Intestinal gas leads to ...
belching, abdominal distention and flatus
Belching is also called
small, infrequent, or difficult bowel movements
increase in frequency and fluidity of bowle movements
associated w/ acute infection, food allergies, and emotional stress
Altered esophageal peristalsis is associated with
the sensation that food has become “stuck” behind the sternum
Abdominal pain may be
- be visceral (diffuse, poorly localized),
- somatic (sharp, well localized),
- or referred (at a distance from the source but in the same dermatome).
Excess gas may result from altered
motility or lack of digestive enzymes
Gas is generated by
by swallowed air and bacterial action on nutritional substrates.
What can cause constipation??
Lack of exercise, lack of dietary fiber, slowed peristalsis, and pathologic conditions that alter motility (e.g., obstruction) may produce constipation
Osmotic diarrhea is due to
increased amounts of poorly absorbed solutes in the intestine
Secretory diarrhea is usually due
to toxins that stimulate intestinal fluid secretion and impair absorption.
(mucus, blood, protein) results from inflammatory processes
What are the Oral infections??
Acute Herpetic Stomatitis (cold sores)
- Hiatal Hernia
- Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
- Esophageal Varices
Inflammation of oral cavity, caused by pathogens, trauma, exposure to irritants, and certain chemicals
Acute Herpetic Stomatitis
- Cold sores
- infection remains dormant in trigeminal ganglia and can be reactivated by emotional or physical stressors
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus, due to weakness of lower esophageal sphincter
defect in diaphragm that allows part of stomach to pass into thorax
Bleeding due to a tear in upper part of stomach or lower part of esophagus
75% are men w/ history of alcohol abuse
A complication of portal hypertension, generally due to cirrhosis from alcoholism or viral hepatitis
Reflux esophagitis is manifested as
heartburn, chest pain, and dysphagia and may be precipitated by gastric overdistention or poor LES tone
Hiatal hernias may be
sliding or rolling (paraesophageal)
Esophageal bleeding may also be precipitated by
coughing, straining, or esophagitis
inflammation of the stomach lining
Gastritis is caused by
Caused by ingestion of alcohol, aspirin, or irritating substances or by viral, bacterial, or autoimmune illnesses
What is a common bacteria of gastritis??
- Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic, superficial
- gastritis in all infected persons
an overuse of what can cause gastritis
NSAIDS, over use of tobacco and alcohol
What are the manifestations of gastritis
may be asymptomatic, don’t know they have it , breath smells like urea, N/V post pradial discomfort (after eating discomfort) a good chance you loose ur appetite (anorexic) in severe cases may vomit up blood (hematemisis)
inflammation of stomach and small intestine
Acute gastroenteritis results from
infection of lining by pathogenic organism (norwalk virus) or ingestion of bacterial endotoxins
Chronic gastroenteritis may lead to
atrophy of the gastric mucosa and the subsequent decreased production of HCI and intrinsic factor
Norwalk virus is very
diarrhea, indegestion, and other types of GI disorders
Peptic Ulcer Disease
injury to mucosa of esophagus, stomach or duodenum
Peptic ulcer disease is caused by
bacteria (H. pylori and NSAIDs)
Symptoms of peptic ulcer disease are
epigastric burning and pain relieved by food intake, most pain is when pts stomach is empty.
in sig # of pt w/ ulcers are asymptomatic due to pain tolerance or lack of pain molecule
in Peptic Ulcer disease GI bleeding may start....
w/ no warning at all. bleeding associated w/ perfusion
inflammatory disease of the mucosa of the colon and rectum, or uncertain cause
inflammation in Ulcerative colitis is
Manifestations of Ulcerative Colitis are
abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding
65-70% of persons w/ UC experience ...
intermittent series of exacerbation and remissions
Ulcerative colitis patients have an increased risk of
developing colon cancer
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease are ...
chronic inflammatory disorders of the bowel
ulcerative colitis occurs in the ...
distal colon (descending and sigmoid colon) due to autoimmune response
Ulcerative colitis may progress to
toxic megacolon requireing immediate surgery
inflammation of proximal colon and less often terminal ileum, affecting multiple sites in colon w/ healthy tissue intervening (skip lesions)
What kind of inflammation is in Crohn disease??
What are the complications of Crohn disease
perianal fissures, fistulae, and abscesses are common
Crohn disease has a less occurenc of what ??
toxic megacolon is less frequent
Crohn disease can be referred to as ...
skip lesions, one point to anouther damaged then great condition and then damaged again
Fistulae in Crohn disease can be
- bowel to bowel
- bowel to bladder
- bowel to vagina
an abnormal opening will eat away that the adjacent bowel can form btw any epithelial surface