lecture 12

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lecture 12
2012-06-07 00:29:15

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  1. What are GI tract disorder manifestations??
    • Dysphagia
    • Esophageal pain
    • Abdominal pain
    • Vomiting
    • Intestinal gas
    • Alterations in Bowel patterns
  2. Dysphagia
    Difficulty in swallowing, possible w/ pain (odynophagia)
  3. What are contributers to dysphagia
    Neuromuscular problems, altered esophageal, lower esophageal shphincter dysfunction space occuptying lesion (cancer)
  4. Esophageal Pain is
    heartburn (pyrosis), from reflux of gastric contents into esophagus
  5. Chest pain in esophageal pain is due to
    • (due to distention of esophagus or spasmsof esophageal
    • musculature, also esophageal reflux)
  6. Abdominal pain may be ...
    acute w/ sudden onset or have a gradual development

    also may be associated w/ a peripheral ulcer (diverticulitis)
  7. Vomiting is a forceful
    expulsion of stomach contents, by diaphragm and abdominal muscles and reverse peristalsis of esophagus
  8. Vomiting is the _____ of the muscles int the ____
    constriction and diaphragm
  9. Intestinal gas leads to ...
    belching, abdominal distention and flatus
  10. Belching is also called
  11. Constipation is
    small, infrequent, or difficult bowel movements
  12. Diarrhea
    increase in frequency and fluidity of bowle movements

    associated w/ acute infection, food allergies, and emotional stress
  13. Altered esophageal peristalsis is associated with
    the sensation that food has become “stuck” behind the sternum
  14. Abdominal pain may be
    • be visceral (diffuse, poorly localized),
    • somatic (sharp, well localized),
    • or referred (at a distance from the source but in the same dermatome).
  15. Excess gas may result from altered
    motility or lack of digestive enzymes
  16. Gas is generated by
    by swallowed air and bacterial action on nutritional substrates.
  17. What can cause constipation??
    Lack of exercise, lack of dietary fiber, slowed peristalsis, and pathologic conditions that alter motility (e.g., obstruction) may produce constipation
  18. Osmotic diarrhea is due to
    increased amounts of poorly absorbed solutes in the intestine
  19. Secretory diarrhea is usually due
    to toxins that stimulate intestinal fluid secretion and impair absorption.
  20. Exudative diarrhea
    (mucus, blood, protein) results from inflammatory processes
  21. What are the Oral infections??

    Acute Herpetic Stomatitis (cold sores)
  22. Esophageal Disorders
    • GERD
    • Hiatal Hernia
    • Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
    • Esophageal Varices
  23. Somatitis
    Inflammation of oral cavity, caused by pathogens, trauma, exposure to irritants, and certain chemicals
  24. Acute Herpetic Stomatitis
    • Cold sores
    • infection remains dormant in trigeminal ganglia and can be reactivated by emotional or physical stressors
  25. GERD
    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus, due to weakness of lower esophageal sphincter
  26. Hiatal Hernia
    defect in diaphragm that allows part of stomach to pass into thorax
  27. Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
    Bleeding due to a tear in upper part of stomach or lower part of esophagus

    75% are men w/ history of alcohol abuse
  28. Esophageal varices
    A complication of portal hypertension, generally due to cirrhosis from alcoholism or viral hepatitis
  29. Reflux esophagitis is manifested as
    heartburn, chest pain, and dysphagia and may be precipitated by gastric overdistention or poor LES tone
  30. Hiatal hernias may be
    sliding or rolling (paraesophageal)
  31. Esophageal bleeding may also be precipitated by
    coughing, straining, or esophagitis
  32. Gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach lining
  33. Gastritis is caused by
    Caused by ingestion of alcohol, aspirin, or irritating substances or by viral, bacterial, or autoimmune illnesses
  34. What is a common bacteria of gastritis??
    • Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic, superficial
    • gastritis in all infected persons
  35. an overuse of what can cause gastritis
    NSAIDS, over use of tobacco and alcohol
  36. What are the manifestations of gastritis
    may be asymptomatic, don’t know they have it , breath smells like urea, N/V post pradial discomfort (after eating discomfort) a good chance you loose ur appetite (anorexic) in severe cases may vomit up blood (hematemisis)
  37. Gastroenteritis
    inflammation of stomach and small intestine
  38. Acute gastroenteritis results from
    infection of lining by pathogenic organism (norwalk virus) or ingestion of bacterial endotoxins
  39. Chronic gastroenteritis may lead to
    atrophy of the gastric mucosa and the subsequent decreased production of HCI and intrinsic factor
  40. Norwalk virus is very

    diarrhea, indegestion, and other types of GI disorders
  41. Peptic Ulcer Disease
    injury to mucosa of esophagus, stomach or duodenum
  42. Peptic ulcer disease is caused by
    bacteria (H. pylori and NSAIDs)
  43. Symptoms of peptic ulcer disease are
    epigastric burning and pain relieved by food intake, most pain is when pts stomach is empty.

    in sig # of pt w/ ulcers are asymptomatic due to pain tolerance or lack of pain molecule
  44. in Peptic Ulcer disease GI bleeding may start....
    w/ no warning at all. bleeding associated w/ perfusion
  45. Ulcerative Colitis
    inflammatory disease of the mucosa of the colon and rectum, or uncertain cause
  46. inflammation in Ulcerative colitis is
  47. Manifestations of Ulcerative Colitis are
    abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding
  48. 65-70% of persons w/ UC experience ...
    intermittent series of exacerbation and remissions
  49. Ulcerative colitis patients have an increased risk of
    developing colon cancer
  50. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease are ...
    chronic inflammatory disorders of the bowel
  51. ulcerative colitis occurs in the ...
    distal colon (descending and sigmoid colon) due to autoimmune response
  52. Ulcerative colitis may progress to
    toxic megacolon requireing immediate surgery
  53. Crohn Disease
    inflammation of proximal colon and less often terminal ileum, affecting multiple sites in colon w/ healthy tissue intervening (skip lesions)
  54. What kind of inflammation is in Crohn disease??
    Granulomatous inflammation
  55. What are the complications of Crohn disease
    perianal fissures, fistulae, and abscesses are common
  56. Crohn disease has a less occurenc of what ??
    toxic megacolon is less frequent
  57. Crohn disease can be referred to as ...
    skip lesions, one point to anouther damaged then great condition and then damaged again
  58. Fistulae in Crohn disease can be
    • bowel to bowel
    • bowel to bladder
    • bowel to vagina

    an abnormal opening will eat away that the adjacent bowel can form btw any epithelial surface