Biology 196 Chapter 3/4 Class 1.3

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Biology 196 Chapter 3/4 Class 1.3
2012-06-07 07:22:25

Summer Term 06/06/12
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  1. Monosaccharides
    Simple Sugars (glucose/ribos)
  2. Aldose
    Carbonyl group at end
  3. Ketose
    Carbonyl group not at end of chain
  4. Disaccharides
    2 joined monosaccharides
  5. Polysaccharides
    Polymers of monosaccharides (many)
  6. Glycosidic Linkage
    (C-O-C) via dehydration
  7. Amylose
    Unbranched, long chain of glucose
  8. Amylopetin
    Branched chain of glucose
  9. Glycogen
    Energy storage polysaccharide in animals and fungi
  10. Cellulose
    • Straight chain polymer of glucose molecules
    • Structural supporting material in plants
  11. Oligosaccharides
    3-20 monosaccharides attached to macromolecules (several)
  12. Glycoproteins
    Oligosaccharides attached to protein
  13. Glycolipids
    Oligosaccharides attached to lipid),
  14. Sugar Phosphates
    • Important intermediates in cellular energy reactions
    • Fructose
  15. Amino Sugars
    • Amino group is substituted for an --OH group
    • Important in the extracellular matrix, form parts of glycoproteins
    • Glucosamine
  16. Chitin
    • Modified polysaccharide
    • Skeletons, cell walls
  17. Glycerol
    Small molecules with three hydroxyl (--OH) groups (alcohol)
  18. Fatty Acid
    Long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain and a polar carboxyl group (--COOH)
  19. Oil
    Triglycerides liquid at room temperature
  20. Ester Linkage
    • Carboxyl group of a fatty acid covalently bond with a hydroxyl group of glycerol, releasing water
    • ((O=C)-(O)) of fatty acid and alcohol
  21. Saturated
    • Have all C-C single bonds (no double bonds)
    • Straight chains, animal product, solid (fat)
  22. Unsaturated
    • Have one or more C=C double bonds
    • Kinked, plants and fish, liquid (oils)
  23. Phospholipids
    Containing phosphate group, important of cellular membranes
  24. Membrane Bilayer
    • Sheet two molecules thick, with water excluded from the core
    • Hydrophylic heads
    • Hydrophobic tails
  25. Cartenoids
    Light absorbing pigments in plants (leaves) and animals (need vitamin A)
  26. Vitamin A
    Broken down carotenoid= rhodopsin
  27. Rhodopsin
    Vitamin A
  28. Steroids
    • Organic compounds whose multiple rings share carbons
    • Membrane fluidity
    • Precursor for sex hormones
    • Cardiovascular disease link
  29. Cholesterol
    Starting material for making testosteron and other steroid hormones (estrogen)
  30. Fat Soluble Vitamins
    Enzyme co-factors from diet: A, D, E, K
  31. Waxes
    • Cell protectants
    • Formed by ester linkage
  32. DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    • Polymer of nucleotides
    • Double strand
    • Genetic info
  33. RNA
    • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    • Polymer of nucleotides
    • Single strand
    • Intermediate in gene expression DNA->RNA->Protein
  34. Nucleotide
    • Consists of pentose sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen-containing base
    • Form nucleic acids
  35. Adenine
    • Purine
    • DNA/RNA
  36. Thymine
    • Pyrimidine
    • DNA
  37. Cytosine
    • Pyrimidine
    • DNA/RNA
  38. Guanine
    • Purine
    • DNA/RNA
  39. Uracil
    RNA (replaces thymine)
  40. Ribose
    • Pentose sugar form RNA
    • One oxygen atom short from deoxyribose
  41. Deoxyribose
    Pentose sugar form DNA
  42. Phosphate Group
  43. Phosphodiester Bond
    • 2 nucleotides linked
    • 2 covalent bonds formed by --OH groups reacting with acidic phosphate groups
  44. Sugar-Phosphate Backbone
    • Chain of alternating pentose sugars and phosphate groups
    • (sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate)
  45. Spontaneous Generation
    • Life from non-living matter
    • Pasteur
  46. Biogenesis
    All life today arises from preexisting life forms
  47. Early-Earth Scenario
    Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules, polymers, self-replicating molecules, protobiont packaging

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