Marine Finals

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PAT025
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157680
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Marine Finals
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2012-06-09 19:06:52
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Marine Bio
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Finals
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  1. What was the niche filled by the first fish?

    A. All of these choices.
    B. Hunting in intertidal communities.
    C. Scavenging the ocean bottom.
    D. Feeding on photosynthetic surface organisms.
    C. Scavenging the ocean bottom.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Lampreys and salmon share a common behavior of being catadromous, meaning they migrate to freshwater to spawn.

    True False
    false
  3. ________ make a shark's skin feel like sandpaper.

    a. Ammocoetes
    b. Placoid scales
    c. Spiracles
    d. Claspers
    Placoid scales
  4. What is the function of claspers on a shark?

    a. Hold the eggs on the female during fertilization.
    b. Transfer sperm from the male to the females.
    c. Allow for reciprocal copulation to occur.
    d. Help streamline a shark's body.
    Transfer sperm from the male to the females.
  5. This structure allows skates and rays to breath while at rest.

    a. Spicules
    b. Spiracles
    c. Placoid scales
    d. Gill slits
    Spiracles
  6. What is considered to be the limiting factor for the rare, lobefin coelacanth?

    a. Prey
    b. Depth
    c. Temperature
    d. Habitat
    Habitat
  7. A ________ consists of an organism's common ancestor and all of its descendents.

    a. monophyletic group
    b. phenetic group
    c. phylogenetic group
    d. gene pool
    monophyletic group
  8. The most abundant type of fish is:

    a. cartilaginous.
    b. jawless.
    c. ray-finned.
    d. lobefin.
    ray-finned
  9. A fish is observed as having a high and narrow tail. It is an active swimmer and appears to have a very streamlined body. What is the body type of this fish?

    a. Depressed body shape
    b. Globular body shape
    c. Laterally compressed body shape
    d. Fusiform body shape
    Fusiform body shape
  10. What are structural colors produced by in fish?

    a. Chromatophores
    b. Pigments
    c. Iridophores
    d. Biochromes
    Iridophores
  11. ________ allows fish to camouflage themselves to avoid predators or ambush prey.

    a. Obliterative countershading
    b. Disruptive coloration
    c. Cryptic coloration
    d. Aposematic coloration
    Cryptic coloration
  12. In gill filament structures, blood flows in the opposite direction from incoming water, creating a countercurrent multiplier system.

    True False
    true
  13. Why is blood pressure low in fish?

    a. Fish are not susceptible to hypertension conditions.
    b. Blood must flow through sinus venosus.
    c. Blood does not return back to the heart.
    d. Water enters slightly deoxygenated.
    Blood does not return back to the heart.
  14. What structure in most ray-finned fish is responsible for buoyancy control?

    a. Gas gland
    b. Squaline
    c. Blubber
    d. Swim bladder
    Swim bladder
  15. What sensory organ is used to detect electrical currents in the water?

    a. Lateral line
    b. Neuromasts
    c. Maculae
    d. Ampullae of Lorenzini
    Ampullae of Lorenzini
  16. The most common form of reproduction for sharks is:

    a. ovoviviparous reproduction.
    b. oviparous reproduction.
    c. asexual reproduction.
    d. viviparous reproduction.
    ovoviviparous reproduction.
  17. Synchronous hermaphroditism is when an animal changes from one sex to another.

    True False
    false
  18. What is the name for an association of fish that exhibit behaviors for social reasons?

    a. Synchronization
    b. Anadromous
    c. Shoaling
    d. Catadromous
    Shoaling
  19. A calcareous structure associated with sensory receptors are:

    a. otoliths.
    b. Ampullae of Lorenzini.
    c. maculae.
    d. neuromasts.
    otoliths
  20. A male fish has changed into a female fish. What kind of hermaphroditism occurred?

    a. All of these choices
    b. Protandry
    c. Protogyny
    d. Synchronous
    Protandry
  21. What factor is a major reason for the success of reptiles?

    a. Advanced circulatory system
    b. Rearing of juveniles
    c. Amniotic egg
    d. Skin covered with tough scales
    Amniotic egg
  22. This adaptation decreases water loss in marine reptiles.

    a. Scaled-skin lacking glands
    b. Efficient kidneys
    c. Active lifestyle
    d. Advanced circulatory system
    Scaled-skin lacking glands
  23. How do saltwater crocodiles communicate with each other?

    a. Calls and barks
    b. Chemical signals in the environment
    c. Changing colors
    d. Posturing and stances
    Calls and barks
  24. The dorsal surface of a turtle's shell is the ________ while the ________ is the ventral surface.

    a. carapace; plastron
    b. carapace; keratin
    c. plastron; carapace
    d. keratin; plastron
    carapace; plastron
  25. Sea turtle adaptations for buoyancy do not include:

    a. reduced shell size compared to terrestrial turtles.
    b. fused skeleton to shell.
    c. fatty deposits.
    d. light, spongy bones.
    fused skeleton to shell
  26. What affect can temperature have on the reproduction of sea turtles?

    a. The sex ratio of juveniles.
    b. The time of day the eggs hatch.
    c. The imprint of the natal beach on juveniles.
    d.The amount of food available to embryos.
    The sex ratio of juveniles
  27. Territorial combat of marine iguanas affects the overall size of the population due to serious injuries that occur.

    True False
    false
  28. The only known marine lizard, the marine iguana, might be traditionally mostly black in color because they:

    a. warn other individuals.
    b. attract mates.
    c. absorb more heat energy.
    d. blend into terrestrial surfaces.
    absorb more heat energy.
  29. True sea snakes are ________ and do not come to land to breed.

    a. oviparous
    b. ovoviviparous
    c. none of these choices
    d.viviparous
    viviparous
  30. What adaptation allows sea snakes to remain submerged for long periods of time?
    a. Able to lower metabolic rate.
    b. They breathe air.
    c. Able to absorb carbon dioxide through the skin.
    d. Dual lungs that extend almost to the tail.
    Able to lower metabolic rate.
  31. What is the term used to describe the ability to maintain a constant body temperature?

    a. Endothermic
    b. Exothermic
    c. Homeothermic
    d. Heterothermic
    Homeothermic
  32. Alcids and penguins have had similar adaptations selected despite them being in different groups. What is this an example of?

    a. Synchronous evolution
    b. Convergent evolution
    c. Concise evolution
    d. Divergent evolution
    Convergent evolution
  33. Pelicans exhibit a unique mandible called a:

    a. glandular pouch.
    b. gular pouch.
    c. fleshy mandible.
    d. head adornment.
    gular pouch.
  34. ________ are credited with cleaning garbage from beaches and water ways.

    a. Sandpipers
    b. Gulls
    c. Terns
    d. Boobies
    Gulls
  35. What adaptation do alcids have to aid in successful reproduction?

    a. They lay eggs in protected areas on the beach.
    b. They lay a single egg at a time.
    c. The males rest eggs on their feet.
    d. They have a pear shaped egg.
    They have a pear shaped egg.
  36. Marine reptiles and birds deal with large concentrations of salts in their body by:

    a. having very fast metabolisms.
    b. having excretory salt glands.
    c. having very efficient kidneys.
    d. secreting salt through their feathers.
    having excretory salt glands.
  37. Sandpipers are known to:

    a. make long annual migrations.
    b. be very solitary birds.
    c. be territorial of their beaches.
    d. feed on worms and fish.
    make long annual migrations.
  38. What birds only come to land to breed?

    a. Albatrosses
    b. Petrels
    c. Alcids
    d. Terns
    Albatrosses
  39. The digestive organ that stores food in penguins is called a:

    a. hular pouch.
    b. head adornment.
    c. crop.
    d. vacuole.
    crop
  40. An ecological equivalent is a group that has evolved dependently in the same habitat and displays different adaptations.

    True False
    false
  41. Why do more marine mammal offspring survive to adulthood than other animals?

    A.They expend high amounts of energy
    B.They have fewer offspring.
    C.They give a high level of parental care.
    D.They have a high metabolic rate.
    C.They give a high level of parental care.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. What marine mammal has dense fur rather than thick layers of blubber?

    A.Manatees
    B.Sea lions
    C.Sea otters
    D.Walruses
    C.Sea otters
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. All pinnipeds come ashore to:

    A.sleep and molt.
    B.feed and mate.
    C.birth and molt.
    D.birth and sleep.
    C.birth and molt.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. A pinniped is observed as lacking external ears, and it appears to propel through the water using its hind flippers only. What kind of pinniped might this be?

    A.Walruses
    B.Phocids
    C.Sirenia
    D.Eared seals
    B.Phocids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. ________ allows mother pinnipeds to adjust the time of pregnancy of less than 1 year to an annual time frame.

    A.Seasonal delayed implantation
    B.Polygny
    C.A gestation period
    D.Lactation
    A.Seasonal delayed implantation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. What environmental factor can lactation periods be affected by?

    A.Predator numbers
    B.Amount of other pinnipeds when lactating
    C.Available nutrients
    D.Temperature of habitat
    D.Temperature of habitat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Phocids congregate in harems during the mating season.

    True False
    false
  48. What is the main food source for walruses?

    A.Molluscs and echinoderms
    B.Penguins
    C.Seagrass
    D.Fish and worms
    A.Molluscs and echinoderms
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. What sirenian went extinct just 27 years after its discovery?

    A.Brazilian manatee
    B.Dugong
    C.African manatee
    D.Stellar sea cow
    D.Stellar sea cow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. What is the group of marine mammals most adapted to the marine environment?

    A.Otters
    B.Pinnipeds
    C.Cetaceans
    D.Sirenians
    C.Cetaceans
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. What does a counter current blood flow supply for cetaceans?

    A.It improves mobility.
    B.It increases circulation.
    C.It conserves body heat.
    D.It transfers oxygen.
    C.It conserves body heat.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. What is responsible for storing oxygen for muscle activity?

    A.Lactic acid
    B.Blood
    C.Myoglobin
    D.Hemoglobin
    C.Myoglobin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Whales are able to collapse their lungs which enables them to cope with compression and decompression.

    True False
    true
  54. What is thought to be the reason of breaching?

    A.To communicate an individual's arrival.
    B.To signal a departure from a group.
    C.All of these choices.
    D.To show dominance.
    C.All of these choices.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. What cetacean behavior is associated with establishing bearings in coastal waters?

    A.Head lunging
    B.Spy hopping
    C.Breaching
    D.Tail slapping
    B.Spy hopping
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Baleen plates are comprised of:

    a.keratin.
    b.myoglobin.
    c.calcium.
    d.hemoglobin.
    a.keratin.
  57. Humpbacks sometimes employ a unique method of feeding which entails:

    A.constantly skimming the surface of the ocean.
    B.filtering amphipods from the mud.
    C.head-lunging.
    D.creating bubble nets.
    D.creating bubble nets.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. The ________ in sperm whales is thought to play a part in the whale's echolocation system.

    A.rostrum
    B.spermaceti
    C.ambergris
    D.melon
    B.spermaceti
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. In addition to its white coloration, beluga whales possess another unique characteristic which is:

    A.the ability to bend its neck.
    B.the presence of two teeth.
    C.the formation of a tusk
    D.the ability to forage in groups.
    A.the ability to bend its neck.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. What process allows odonticetes to use sound waves to distinguish objects?

    A.Melon
    B.Radar
    C.Sonar
    D.Echolocation
    D.Echolocation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. What forms the basis of a reef community?

    A.Cnidocytes
    B.Zooxanthellae
    C.Corallites
    D.Scleractinian corals
    B.Zooxanthellae
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. ________ coral species are responsible for building reefs in shallow, tropical waters.

    A.Broadcast
    B.Mesenterial
    C.Ahermatypic
    D.Hermatypic
    D.Hermatypic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. What structure is involved with digestion, absorption, and defense in cnidarians?

    A.Nematocysts
    B.Mesenterial filaments
    C.Planula
    D.Cnidocytes
    B.Mesenterial filaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Most sexually reproducing corals are brooders, broadcasting their sperm while retaining their eggs.

    True False
    false
  65. An area has a coral colony beginning to wear away. What process is occurring?

    a.Fringing reefs
    b.Bioerosion
    c.Nutrient recycling
    d.Opportunistic growth
    b.Bioerosion
  66. Increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is responsible for:

    a.coral expelling their zooxanthellae.
    b.oceans becoming more basic.
    c.production of excess sediments.
    d.bioerosion.
    a.coral expelling their zooxanthellae.
  67. Which reefs are directly impacted by human activity the most?

    a.Atolls
    b.Patch reefs
    c.Fringing reefs
    d.Barrier reefs
    c.Fringing reefs
  68. ________ arise out of deep water and have a lagoon in the center of it.

    a.Atolls
    b.Barrier reefs
    c.Patch reefs
    d.Fringing reefs
    a.Atolls
  69. What reef formation is the most common?

    a.Spur-and-groove
    b.Reef front
    c.Drop off
    d.Reef crest
    a.Spur-and-groove
  70. What part of the reef receives the full impact of wave energy?

    a.Drop off
    b.Reef crest
    c.Forereef
    d.Back reef
    b.Reef crest
  71. Most reefs grow at depths of ________ meters or less.

    A.30
    B.15
    C.25
    D.60
    C.25
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. Atlantic reefs have a deeper buttress zone and are dominated by fire coral.

    True False
    True
  73. What phenomena is thought to bring nutrients to Atolls?

    A.Run-off
    B.Algal ridges
    C.Upwelling
    D.Settling of sediments
    C.Upwelling
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. ________ is used to measure the state of development of a biological community.

    A.Community respiration
    B.Gross primary production
    C.Gross primary production to community respiration ratio
    D.Climax
    C.Gross primary production to community respiration ratio
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. What hypothesis suggests there is no competition between reef fish because there are so many factors to create a niche for each species?

    A.Resource limitation model
    B.Competition model
    C.Predation disturbance model
    D.Lottery model
    B.Competition model
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. These organisms are very vital in determining the structure of the reef due to their territorial behaviors.

    A.Angelfish
    B.Sponges
    C.Seaweeds
    D.Damselfish
    D.Damselfish
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. How do corallivores keep certain corals from being overgrown?

    A.None of these choices.
    B.Moves sediment towards slow growing corals.
    C.Feed on fast-growing, branching corals.
    D.Prevent larval corals to settle in certain areas.
    C.Feed on fast-growing, branching corals.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. Which is not an adaptation of reef dwellers to avoid predation?

    A.Feeding during the day.
    B.Hiding during the day.
    C.Ability to eviscerate internal organs.
    D.Production of poisonous mucus.
    A.Feeding during the day.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. Coral bleaching is a result of:

    A.corals expelling their zooxanthellae.
    B.pesticides from coastal developments.
    C.the calcareous skeleton begins to breakdown.
    D.extended periods of run-off.
    A.corals expelling their zooxanthellae.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. Coral reefs:

    A.provide compounds used for pharmaceuticals.
    B.remove carbon dioxide from water and air.
    C.all of these choices.
    D.provide protection from storm generated surf conditions.
    C.all of these choices.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. The photic zone is part of what broader zone?

    A.Epipelagic zone
    B.Aphotic zone
    C.Vertical zone
    D.Epibenthic zone
    A.Epipelagic zone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. What characterizes nekton?

    A.Ability to swim strongly against currents.
    B.All of these choices.
    C.Relatively high consumption.
    D.Highly productive organisms.
    A. Ability to swim strongly against currents.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. The term for plankton that lives near the surface is:

    A.neustron.
    B.tripton.
    C.nekton.
    D.holoplankton.
    A.neustron.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. A diatom is considered to be kinetic plankton.

    True False
    false
  85. A larval stage of a lobster is what kind of plankton?

    A.Holoplankton
    B.Mesoplankton
    C.Meroplankton
    D.Picoplankton
    C.Meroplankton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. ________ is the living and dead particles of plankton connected by strands of mucous.

    A.Marine snow
    B.Pleuston
    C.Tripton
    D.Neustron
    A.Marine snow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. What is a densely packed group of migratory plankton called?

    A.Photic migrators
    B.Sonar disruption
    C.Holoplankton
    D.Deep scattering layer
    D.Deep scattering layer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. What type of organism uses a salp's body to live inside?

    A.Larvaceans
    B.Tunicates
    C.Amphipods
    D.Pyrosomes
    C.Amphipods
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. What kind of pteropod or sea butterfly has completely lost its shell?

    A.Gastropod
    B.Apteropod
    C.Thecosome pteropod
    D.Gymnosome pteropod
    D.Gymnosome pteropod
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. Which invertebrate is thought to reign as a formidable predator?

    A.Whelks
    B.Lobsters
    C.Seastars
    D.Squids
    D.Squids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. Why do sharks produce fewer young in a breeding season?

    A.Inefficient use of energy.
    B.Sharks rear their young.
    C.Long migrations to breeding grounds.
    D.Efficient reproductive strategies.
    D.Efficient reproductive strategies.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. Coccolithophores use ________ for a method of swimming.

    A.appendages
    B.cilia
    C.jet propulsion
    D.flagellates
    D.flagellates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. A particular shark is dark on its dorsal side while much lighter on its ventral side. What camouflage is it exhibiting?

    A.Countershading
    B.Optical illusion
    C.Transparency
    D.Cryptic
    A.Countershading
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. What is the term for zooplankton with water bodies?

    A.Pluestonic cnidarians
    B.Mesoplankton
    C.Gelatinous zooplankton
    D.Holoplankton
    C.Gelatinous zooplankton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. What is the basis of the food chains in pelagic ecosystems?

    A.Seaweeds
    B.Zooplankton
    C.Detritus
    D.Phytoplankton
    D.Phytoplankton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. Why are tropical waters so blue?

    A.High mineral content
    B.Higher density of water
    C.Large bacteria populations
    D.Low primary productivity
    D.Low primary productivity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. A bacterial loop entails a portion of the food web in which bacteria convert dissolved organic matter into consumable bacterial biomass.

    True False
    True
  98. What reduces the rate at which bacteria converts dissolved organic matter to particulate organic matter?

    A.Phages
    B.Sunlight
    C.Depth
    D.Dissolved organic matter availability
    A.Phages
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. A ________ is the amount of biomass of an organism in a given area.

    A.standing crop
    B.production pyramid
    C.none of these choices
    D.trophic level
    A.standing crop
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. What is a reason for the open sea's ability to support few large animals?

    A.Short food chains.
    B.The decline of conversion efficiency.
    C.Overfishing.
    D.High productivity rates.
    B.The decline of conversion efficiency.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. There are more species of plants and animals in the Indian River Lagoon than in any other estuary in North America because the Gulf Stream brings many species up from the Caribbean and because of overlapping climatic regions of temperate and tropic zones.

    True False
    True
  102. What nearshore reef type is found along Florida’s Treasure Coast?

    A.Oyster reef
    B.Coral reef
    C.Worm reef
    C.Worm reef
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. What is the distribution of the Sabellarid reefs?

    A.North of Cape Canaveral
    B.Canaveral to south end of Biscayne Bay
    C.Florida Keys
    D.West coast of Florida
    B.Canaveral to south end of Biscayne Bay
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. How do the worms prevent desiccation at low tide?

    A.they build sand hoods over their tubes
    B.they migrate into deeper waters
    C.they live in the subtidal zone and never dry out
    D.they swim out of the tubes at low tide
    A.they build sand hoods over their tubes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. What is the primary food source of Sabellarid worms?

    A.phytoplankton
    B.fish
    C.seagras
    D.microplankton
    D.microplankton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  106. How fast is the reef growth in a six month period?

    A.1 to 2 cubic yards
    B.1,500 – 3,000 cubic yards
    C.1,000 – 1,300 cubic yards
    D.100 – 500 cubic yards
    C.1,000 – 1,300 cubic yards
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. Large amounts of sand-sized particles suspended in seawater are lethal to Sabellarid worms.

    a.true b.false
    b.false
  108. How many worms are found in one square meter of reef?

    A.up to 60,000 individuals
    B.500 individual worms
    C.1,000 individuals
    D.10,000 individuals
    A.up to 60,000 individuals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  109. Young worm larvae have simple visual organs on both ends of the body to look for a good site to attach themselves.

    a.true b.false
    a.true
  110. Which of the following are ecological benefits of Sabellarid reefs?

    a.provide feeding grounds for sea turtles and fish
    b.provide habitat for marine algae and plants
    c.provide shelter for spiny lobster
    d.all of the above
    d.all of the above
  111. Sea turtles are air breathing reptiles that are well adapted to life in the marine environment.

    a.True b.False
    a.True
  112. Of the seven species of sea turtles that are found throughout the World, how many occur in US waters?

    A.3
    B.5
    C.6
    D.7
    C.6
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. The majority of sea turtles are inhabiting ocean waters of temperate climates

    a.True b.False
    True
  114. Which of the following species has more than one ESA (Endangered Species Act) status?

    A.Loggerhead Turtle
    B.Green Turtle
    C.Hawksbill Turtle
    D.Leatherback Turtle
    A.Loggerhead Turtle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  115. All of the following are major threats to sea turtles except:

    a.vessel strikes
    b .population density increase
    c.entanglement in marine debris
    d.destruction of foraging habitats
    b .population density increase
  116. Which of the following species has a diet consisting exclusively of plants?

    A.Loggerhead Turtle
    B.Olive Ridley Turtle
    C.Green Turtle
    D.Kemp’s Ridley Turtle
    C.Green Turtle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. The father of modern marine turtle biology and conservation is Dr. Archie Carr.

    a.True b.False
    true
  118. What is the estimated age of sexual maturity for Green turtles?

    A.5-10 years
    B.10-15 years
    C.20-50 years
    D.15-20 years
    C.20-50 years
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. Green Turtles primarily use the following three habitat types except:

    A.convergence zones in the open ocean
    B.planktonic feeding grounds in the open ocean
    C.benthic feeding grounds in coastal areas
    D.oceanic beaches
    B.planktonic feeding grounds in the open ocean
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. In Florida, the Indian River Lagoon and Florida Keys represent important feeding grounds of the Green Turtle.

    a.True b.False
    True
  121. A major threat to turtles is the Fibropapillomatosis disease that includes all of the following symptoms except:

    A.early maturity
    B.causes blindness
    C.internal and external tumor growth
    D.reduced feeding abilities
    A.early maturity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. To avoid incidental capture and mortality of sea turtles during fishing operation, TEDs (Turtle Excluder Devices) have been developed.

    a.True b.False
    True
  123. Loss and degradation of nesting habitat affecting nesting females and hatchlings is caused by all of the following except:

    A.native vegetation
    B.artificial lighting
    C.beach nourishment
    D.beach armoring
    A.native vegetation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. Artisanal fisheries can positively impact leatherback and loggerhead turtle populations.

    a.True b.False
    True
  125. Worldwide, how many countries have currently developed TED programs that are comparable to the US program?

    A.20
    B.5
    C.10
    D.15
    D.15
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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