Biology Final Exam

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Biology Final Exam
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9th grade Biology Flashcards
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  1. Abiogenesis
    The idea that life can arise from non-living things.
  2. Autotroph
    An organism that can produce it's own food
  3. Homeostatsis
    Maintaining a constant internal environment.
  4. Sessile
    Cannot move
  5. Anabolic
    building up molecules
  6. Cyclosis
    The circulation of the cytoplasm within the cell.
  7. Aerobic
    Including oxygen
  8. Biogenesis
    living things arise only from other living things.
  9. Motile
    able to move.
  10. Catabolic
    breaking down
  11. Anaerobic
    without oxygen
  12. Stimulus
    evokes a functional reaction
  13. Metabolic
    The sum of all anabolic or catabolic reactions
  14. Heterotroph
    an organism that has to consume another organism to obtain nutrients
  15. What are 10 characteristics of living things?
    • 1. Maintain its boundaries
    • 2. Movement
    • 3. Ability to respond to stimuli
    • 4. Digestion
    • 5. Metabolism
    • 6. Excretion
    • 7. Reproduction
    • 8. Growth
    • 9. Exhibit homeostasis
    • 10. Capacity to evolve
  16. are viruses considered to be alive?
    No, they do not have cells, and cannot reproduce if not feeding on a host.
  17. 7 steps of the scientific method (IN ORDER!)
    • 1.State the Problem
    • 2.Gather Information
    • 3.Form a hypothesis
    • 4.Test the hypothesis
    • 5.Analyze Data
    • 6.Make a conclusion
    • 7.Report Results
  18. independent variable
    The variable being tested or changed.
  19. Dependent variable
    The data being collected
  20. Control Variables
    Factors that are the same between experimental and control groups.
  21. 8 categories of the current classification system?
    • -Domain
    • -Kingdom
    • -Phylum
    • -Class
    • -Order
    • -Family
    • -Genus
    • -Species
  22. Characteristics of Archea
    • * All prokaryotic
    • * "ancient" bacteria under extreme conditions
    • * High temperatures, high salt content, etc.
  23. characteristics of Bacteria
    • * All are prokaryotic
    • * More modern bacteria
    • * Some live in our digestive tracts (E. Coli)
    • * Some cause illnesses such as colds and strep throat
    • * Some are photosynthetic such as blue-green bacteria; others are decomposers
  24. characteristics of Eukaryota
    • * All are eukaryotes
    • * Includes all other organisms
    • * Protista, Fungi, Plante, Anamali
  25. Which electrons are involved in bonding?
    Valence electrons
  26. Archea (Kingdom)
    • * Prokaryote
    • * Unicellular
    • * (Most) Heterotroph
    • * Sessile and Motile
  27. Bacteria (Kingdom)
    • * Prokayote
    • * Unicellular
    • * Autotrophic and Heterotrophic
    • * Sessile and Motile
  28. Protista (Kingdom)
    • * Eukaryote
    • * (Most) Unicellular
    • * Autotrophic and Heterotrophic
    • * Motile
  29. Fungi (kingdom)
    • * Eukaryote
    • * Unicellular and Multicellular
    • * Absorbtive Heterotrophs
    • * Sessile
  30. Plante (Kingdom)
    • * Eukaryote
    • * Multicellular
    • * Autotroph
    • * Sessile
  31. Animalia (Kingdom0
    • * Eukaryote
    • * Multicellular
    • * Heterotroph
    • * Motile
  32. What are the rules for writing a scientific name?
    • * The genus should be capitalized
    • * The species should be lower case
    • * It should be underlined if written
    • * It should be italicized if typed
  33. What are the 6 most common elements in living organisms?
    • 1. Sulfur
    • 2. Phosphorus
    • 3. Oxygen
    • 4. Nitrogen
    • 5. Carbon
    • 6. Hydrogen
  34. Why is carbon such an important element for living organisms?
    • * 4 Valence Electrons
    • * Covalent Bonds
    • * Easy bond with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and other carbon atoms.
  35. What are the four organic molecules studied in Biology?
    • 1. Carbohydrates
    • 2. Lipids
    • 3. Proteins
    • 4. Nucleic Acids
  36. What elements make up a carbohydrate?
    • * Carbon
    • * Hydrogen
    • * Oxygen
  37. What elements make up a lipid?
    • * Carbon
    • * Oxygen
    • * Hydrogen
  38. What elements make up a protein?
    • * Carbon
    • * Hydrogen
    • * Nitrogen
    • * Oxygen
  39. What elements make up a nucleic acid?
    • 5 Carbon Sugar
    • Phosphate
    • Nitrogen Base
  40. What is the basic unit of a carbohydrate?
    monosacharides
  41. What is the basic unit of a lipid?
    • 1 glycerol
    • 3 fatty acids
  42. What is the basic unit of a protein?
    Amino Acids
  43. What is the basic unit of a nucleic acid?
    Nucleotide
  44. What is the use of Carbohydrates?
    Quick Energy
  45. What is the use of Lipids?
    • Long Term Energy
    • Insulation
    • Cushioning
    • Membranes
    • Hormones
  46. What is the use of Proteins?
    • Growth
    • Repair
    • Messengers
    • Hormones
    • Membranes
  47. What is the use of Nucleic Acids?
    Genetic Information
  48. How does an enzyme work to speed up the rate of a chemical reactions?
    • * Lowers the activation energy
    • * less energy to start
    • * reaction occurs faster.
  49. What are the three points of the cell theory?
    • 1. All organisms are made up of cells
    • 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things
    • 3. All new cells come from cells which already existed.
  50. How is a multicellular organism more efficient than a unicellular organism?
    • Unicellular
    • * The cell must perform all life functions or the organism dies
    • * Each cell is independent from other cells (even those of the same species)
    • * When the cell dies, the organism dies.
    • Multicellular
    • * If one cell of a multicellular organism dies, the organism will probably survive
    • * Cells specialize to perform specific functions
    • * Cells have a division of labor, performing different functions to keep the organism alive and functioning.
  51. How are cells organized in a multicellular organism?
    * Cells --> Tissues --> Organs --> Organ Systems
  52. Which organelles are only found in plant cells?
    • * Chloroplast
    • * Large Vacuole
    • * Cell Wall
  53. Which organelles are only found in animal cells?
    • * Centrioles
    • * Lysosomes
  54. What is passive transport? In which direction do the molecules move? Does the cell have to provide energy?
    • * Movement of molecules with the concentration gradient
    • * Molecules move from high to low concentration
    • * Cell does not need to provide energy
  55. What is active transport? In which direction do the molecules move? Does the cell have to provide energy?
    • * Move molecules from low to high concentration
    • * The cell needs to provide energy
  56. Diffusion
    * The movement of molecules fom an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  57. Osmosis
    * The diffusion of water across a semi-permiable membrane
  58. Facilitated Diffusion
    • * Some molecules are transported across a membrane by a carrier protein molecule.
    • * High concentration to low concentration, no energy provided by the cell, protein molecules use their own energy.
  59. Membrane Pumps
    • * The protein molecules temporarily change shape to allow the needed molecules across the membrane
    • * Energy is needed to change shape
  60. Endocytosis
    * Membrane moves to surround a particle and brings it into the cell
  61. Phagocytosis
    When large solid molecules are taken into the cell
  62. Pinocytosis
    When liquid particles are taken into the cell.
  63. Exocytosis
    * When particles are removed from a cell by moving a waste vacuole next to the cell membrane
  64. When a cell is in a Hypertonic solution:
    * Water will diffuse out of the cell into the surrounding hypertonic solution.
  65. When a cell is in an isotonic solution
    * Water is in dynamic equilibrium, the cell size stays the same.
  66. When a cell is in an Hypotonic solution:
    * Water diffuses into the cell, the cell gets larger.
  67. What are the four factors that can affect the rate of diffusion?
    • 1. Phase of matter
    • 2. Temperature
    • 3. Particle Size
    • 4. Pressure
  68. What is the complete equation for photosynthesis?
    * 6CO2+6H2O --> C6H12O6+6O2
  69. What occurs during the light reactions?
    • * Light hits the chlorophyll molecules of photosystem II (thylakoid disks of Grana)
    • * Electrons are energized
    • * Water splits into 2H+1 Ions and O-2 ions
    • * Thy oxygen ions compine to form O2 gas
    • * exits the leaf through the stomata
  70. What occurs during the Calvin Cycle?
    • * Hydrogen from NADPH and energy from ATP are bonded to CO2
    • * CO2 molecules enter the cycle
    • * They combine with carbon molecules
    • * Energy from ATP and NADPH is released and stored in the new G3P molecules that formed
    • * 2 PGAL molecules are removed to make glucose
    • * The remaining stay in the cycle to from 5-carbon molecules
    • * 6 CO2 molecules enter the cycle to make glucose molecule
  71. What is the complete equation for aerobic cellular respiration?
    * C6H12O6+6O2 --> 6CO2+6H2O+36 ATP
  72. Glycolosis
    • * All living organisms
    • * Takes place in the cytoplasm
    • * Anaerobic
    • * Enzymes split glucose in two
    • * Yields 2 pyruvic acid molecules, NADH and 4 ATP
  73. Citric Acid Cycle
    • * If oxygen is available, pyruvic acid is converted into Acetyl CoA
    • * Move into the mitochondrion
    • * Enzymatic reactions, Acetyl CoA is converted into
    • * NADH and FADH2
    • * Carbon Dioxide
    • * 2 ATP molecules
  74. Electron Transport
    • * All NADH and FADH2 ender the electron transport chain
    • * H+ ions are pumped into the intermembrane space.
    • * H+ ions and electrons combine with oxygen to make water
    • * After is chemiosmosis and it yields 32-34 ATP
  75. What occurs during fermentation in a yeast cell?
    • * Pyruvic Acid is converted into Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide
    • * No ATP is made
  76. What occurs during Fermentation in a human muscle cell?
    • * Pyruvic Acid is converted into lactic acid
    • * No ATP is made
  77. Water Cycle
    • * Water Vapor in the air condenses to make clouds
    • * Water falls to the Earth as a form of precipitation
    • * The liquid water collects on the Earth in oceans, lakes, groundwater etc.
    • * The water evaporates from the heat of the sun and earth
  78. Carbon Cycle
    • * Through decomposition of dead organisms, CO2 is returned to the atmosphere
    • * Plants and animals return the carbon in glucose back to the air in the form of CO2 through cellular respiration
    • * Through combustion of organic matter, carbon is returned to the atmosphere.
    • * The the burning of fossil fuels, CO2 is cycled back to the atmosphere.
    • * Plants convert CO2 in the air to glucose through photosynthesis.
  79. Nitrogen Cycle
    • * Lightning will fix the N2 in the surrounding air
    • * Legumes have nodules in roots containing nitrogen fixing bacteria
    • * The Haber Process used high temperature and high pressure to make fertilizer
    • * N2 is changed into ammonia and absorbed by plants through their roots.
    • * Animals eat plants and the nitrogen enters the food web
    • * Decomposers break down dead plants and animals and their wastes, N2 is returned to the atmosphere.
    • * N2 gas has a triple bond so the nitrogen is unavailable to plants
  80. Phosphorus Cycle
    • * Through the process of weathering, phosphorus ions are released into the soil and absorbed by plants through their roots.
    • * Animals eat the plants and phosphorus enters the food web
    • * Decomposers break down dead organisms and their waste and return the phosphorus back to the soil
    • * Some phosphorus enters the groundwaters and the ocean sediment will form rocks after a long period of time
    • * Calcium phosphate is commonly found in rocks.
  81. How does the surface area to volume ratio determine when a cell will divide?
    * When the volume is too large, not enough nutrients can diffuse across the cell membrane
  82. What is the normal resting phase of a cell?
    * Interphase (95% of the cell's life)
  83. What are the 4 phases of mitosis in order?
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  84. Prophase
    • * Nucleoli and nuclear membrane disengenerate
    • * Chromatin material thickens into chromosomes
    • * Each half is a chromatid attached by a centromere
    • * Centrioles move to opposite sides
    • * Asters and spindle fibers form (microtubles)
    • * A spindle froms (football shaped)
  85. * Metaphase
    • * Chromosomes break apart
    • * Individual chromatids move towards opposite ends of the cell
    • * Centromere attaches chromatids to the spindle.
  86. * Anaphase
    • * Centromeres break apart
    • * Individual chromatids move towards opposite ends of the cell
    • * Cleave furrow appears
  87. * Telophase
    • * Spindle disengenerate
    • * Nuclear membrane and nucleoli reappear
    • * Chromosome become less distinct (chromatin material)
    • * Cleavage furrow completely divides the cell.
  88. What is the end product of mitosis?
    two identical diploid daughter cells
  89. What are the phases of meiosis in order?
    • Interphase I
    • * Prophase I
    • * Metaphase I
    • * Anaphase I
    • * Telophase I
    • * Interphase II
    • * Prophase II
    • * Metaphase II
    • * Anaphase II
    • * Telophase II
  90. Interphase I
    • * Resting state of the cell
    • * Chromosomes replicate
  91. * Prophase I
    • * Chromosomes are shorter and thicker
    • * Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear.
    • * Centrioles move to the opposite sides of the cell
    • * Spindle fibers form
  92. * Metaphase I
    * The tetrads line up along the center of the cell
  93. * Anaphase I
    • * The tetrads separate and the homologous pairs of chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell
    • * The chromatids attached by the centromere do NOT separate
  94. * Telophase I
    • * Undergoes cytokinesis
    • * Cell membrane and cytoplasm divide
  95. * Interphase II
    • * Two new (not identical) daughter cells are formed
    • * Each daughter cell undergoes the following stages:
  96. * Prophase II
    • * Centrioles replicate and move to opposite sides of the cell
    • * The spindle forms
  97. * Metaphase II
    • * The chromatids are still attached at the centromere
    • * They line up along the middle of the cell
  98. * Anaphase II
    • * The centromere divides
    • * The chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell
  99. * Telophase II
    • * Undergoes cytokinesis
    • * Cell membrane and cytoplasm divides
    • * Chromatids elongate and the cell returns to interphase.
  100. What is the product of Meiosis?
    • Four unique daughter cells
    • * Haploid
    • * Sex cells (eggs and sperm)
  101. * Oogenesis
    • * Meiosis
    • * Haploid
    • * Occurs in females before they are born
  102. * Spermatogenesis
    • * Meiosis
    • * Haploid
    • * Occurs in males daily from puberty to adulthood
  103. Identical Twins
    • * One fertilized egg fertilized by one sperm
    • * While undergoing natural mitosis during development, sometimes the cell separates
    • * Two embryos develop
    • * Same DNA --> Genetically identical --> Clones
  104. Fraternal Twins
    • * Two eggs are released and fertilized by two sperm cells
    • * Embryos are not genetically identical
  105. How did Gregor Mendel contribute to our understanding of Genetics?
    • * "Father of genetics"
    • * Conducted experiments on pea plants; controlled the pollination of plants and recorded the characteristics
    • * Work discovered approximately 20 years after his death
  106. How did Fredrick Griffith contribute to our understanding of Genetics?
    • * Worked on a vaccine for pneumonia
    • * Something from dead type S was transferred to to the live type R
    • * Called this transformation
  107. How did Avery contribute to our understanding of Genetics?
    • * Identified material transferred in Griffinth's experiments as DNA
    • * Many still believed it was a protein
    • * Scientists began to look at DNA as a genetic substance
  108. How did Hershey and Chase contribute to our understanding of Genetics?
    • * Used bacteriophages
    • * After the virus replicated, DNA showed large amounts of radioactivity
    • * Viral DNA enters bacteria
    • * Proved DNA carries genetic Information.
  109. How did T. Morgan contribute to our understanding of Genetics?
    • * Worked with fruit flies
    • * Has 8 chromosomes
    • * Can breed large numbers in small containers
    • * Sex determination is similar to humans
    • * Won nobel prize in 1933 for work with genetics.
  110. How are symbols for the genotype determined?
    • * Dominant traits are capital letters
    • * Recessive traits are lower case letters
  111. What are the P, F1, and F2 generations?
    • * P: Parents involved in a cross
    • * F1: First filial generation (children of parents)
    • * F2: Second filial generation (grandchildren of parents)
  112. What is mendel's law of segregation?
    Homologous pairs of chromosomes are separated from each other during gamete formation (meiosis) and recombined at fertilization.
  113. What is mendel's law of dominance?
    When an organism is heterozygous for a pair of contrasting traits, it will show the dominant trait
  114. What is mendel's law of independent assortment?
    Alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed. These allele pairs are then randomly united at fertilization.
  115. What is the structure of a DNA molecule?
    • * Made of small units called nucleotides
    • * Each nucleotide has three parts
    • * Sugar (deoxyribose)
    • * Phosphate group
    • * Nitrogenous Base
    • * Shaped like a double helix
  116. What is the structure of a RNA molecule?
    • * One strand instead of two
    • * Ribose sugar
    • * Uracil instead of thymine
  117. Who are Watson and Crick and what did they do?
    • * Examined the work of other scientists and figured out the structure of DNA
    • * In 1962, both received the Nobel Prize for medicine/physiology
  118. What is meant by complementary base pairing?
    * Each side contains a blueprint for a new DNA molecule
  119. When a DNA molecule undergoes replication , does each new molecule have completely new strands? If not what occurs?
    • * Two identical DNA molecules twist again to form a double helix
    • * Each contains one side from old DNA and one newly formed from free nucleotides
    • * If not, a mutation can occur.
  120. * Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • * Carries the instructions to make a protein
    • * From DNA in nucleus to ribosomes
    • * Traditional from of RNA
    • * Single Strand
  121. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • * Carries the amino acids to ribosomes
    • * Found in the cytoplasm
  122. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    * One of the chemicals which makes up ribosomes
  123. How is mRNA created during transcription?
    • * Portion of DNA with instructions for needed protein unzips
    • * Free RNA nucleotides in nucleus match up with exposed bases on DNA molecule
    • * Three nucleotides on the mRNA form a codon that are complementary to the DNA triplet.
    • * Bonds from between RNA nucleotides to complete mRNA
    • * mRNA separates from DNA
    • * Leaves the nucleus and move to ribosomes
    • * DNA molecule re-zips.
  124. How is the information in mRNA turned into a polypeptide?
    • * One end of mRNA attaches to a ribosome
    • * tRNA carries appropriate amino acid to mRNA
    • * Anticodon (on tRNA) fits with codon (on mRNA)
    • * Ribosome holds mRNA and two tRNA's in place
    • * Peptide bond forms between amino acids
    • * First tRNA is released
    • * Ribosome moves to the next position on mRNA
    • * A third tRNA with amino acids moves into open position
    • * Ribosome continues to move down mRNA
    • * tRNA continues to add amino acids
    • * Until the ribosome reaches a STOP codon on the mRNA
  125. Who was Charles Darwin and what did he discover on his voyage to the Galapagos Islands?
    • * British naturalist
    • * 1831 traveled on the HMS Beagle to the Galapagos Islands
    • * Took notes and collected specimens from the different islands
    • * Noticed similarities and differences.
  126. What are the major points of Darwin's theory of Evolution?
    • * Overproduction
    • * Most species produce more offspring than can survive
    • * Struggle for existence
    • * The environment can be a dangerous place
    • * Individuals compete for limited resources
  127. Variation
    * Each species contain a variety of individuals
  128. * Survival of the fittest
    * Some individuals are better adapted to the environments than others; have more advantageous traits
  129. * Natural Selection
    * The most fit individuals pass on their genes for advantageous traits to the next generation
  130. * Evolution of a new species
    • * Over many generations, the population contains advantageous traits
    • * Unfavorable traits disappear from the population.
  131. Who was Lamarck and what was his theory of evolution?
    • * Believed animals could adapt when needed
    • * Fossils showed that giraffes had short necks
    • * Giraffes stretch their necks to reach food
    • * Longer necked giraffes live to pass on the trait to offspring
    • * This theory is wrong.
  132. What are the four points of the Hardy-Weinberg principle? What does it mean if all four points are true for a population? What does it mean if all points are not true for a population?
    • * No new mutations are occurring. Therefore, no new alleles are being created.
    • * There is no migration. In other words, no one is moving into or out of the population.
    • * The population is very large
    • * Mating is random in the population. This means that individuals do not choose mates based on genotype
    • * There is no natural selection. Thus, all members of the population have an equal chance of reproducing and passing their genes to the next generation.
    • * When all of these conditions are met, allele frequencies stay the same.
  133. How does Reproductive Isolation lead to speciation?
    • * Courtship
    • * Time of Mating
    • * Structure of Sex Organs
  134. How does Behavioral Isolation lead to speciation?
    * Performs wrong mating dance
  135. How does Geographic Isolation lead to speciation?
    * Population is divided by natural border
  136. How does Temporal Isolation lead to speciation?
    * Different breeding seasons
  137. Parasitism
    • * One organism benefits and the other is harmed
    • * Ex: Tick on a dog
  138. * Mutualism
    • * Both organisms benefit
    • * Ex: Bees and flowers
  139. * Commensalism
    • * One organism benefits and the other is unaffected
    • * Ex: Sharks and Remora Fish
  140. Primary Succession
    • * Occurs where no ecosystem previously existed.
    • * Ex: Lava forms a new island
  141. Secondary Succession
    • * Occurs where an ecosystem has previously existed.
    • * Ex: Abandoned farmland
  142. What is the role of the decomposers in ecosystems?
    * Organisms eat dead, decaying organisms
  143. Density Dependent Factors
    • * Increasing effect as populations grow
    • * Disease
    • * Competition
    • * Parasites
  144. * Density Independent Factos
    • * Affect population no matter it's size
    • * Temperature
    • * Flooding
    • * Habitat Destruction
    • * Pollution
  145. Primary Organs in the digestive system and uses:
    • * Mouth
    • * Salivary Analase breaks down starches
    • * Pharynx
    • * Esophagus
    • * Salivary Analase breaks down starches
    • * Stomach
    • * HCL denatures salivary analase
    • * Pepsin breaks down proteins
    • * Small Intestine
    • * Pepsin from stomach is denatured
    • * Pancreatic Analase breaks down starches
    • * Tryptsin breaks down polypeptides into dipeptides
    • * Lipase breaks fat into fatty acids and glycerol
    • * Bile emulsifies fat
    • * Capillaries and Lacteal in the villi absorb the nutrients into the circulatory/lymph systems
    • * Large Intestine
    • * Absorption of water
    • * Rectum/Anus
    • * Egestion
  146. Secondary Organs in the digestive system and uses:
    • * Salivary Glands
    • * Produces salivary analase
    • * Pancreas
    • * Produces pancreatic analase
    • * Liver
    • * Produces Bile
    • * Gall Bladder
    • * Stores Bile
  147. Circulatory System
    • * Arteries take blood away from the heart to other parts of the body
    • * Veins cary oxygen-depleated blood back to the heart
    • * Small branching blood vessels that absorb nutrients, oxygen and water into the blood.
    • * The heart is a hollow muscular organ that pumps the blood through the circulatory system by rhythmic contraction and dilation. In vertebrates there may be up to four chambers (as in humans), with two atria and two ventricles.
    • * The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the veins
    • * Blood then goes into the right ventricle and then pumped to the lungs
    • * The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein.
    • * Blood then enters the left ventricle and the blood goes through the entire body.
  148. Respiratory System
    • * Air enters through the nose or mouth
    • * Air travels through the pharynx down through the trachea
    • * The trachea splits into two bronchi
    • * The bronchioles end in the alveoli.
    • * Oxygen diffuses into the blood stream and the carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli to be breathed out.
    • * The diaphragm helps air to be breathed in and for air to be pushed out.
  149. Nervous System
    • * Neurons are specialized cells that are the information-processing units of the brain responsible for receiving and transmitting information.
    • * The structure is a soma with a nucleus with a large branch called an axon branching off with smaller branches called dendrites.
    • * The parts of the nervous system include the spinal chord, brain, and neurons.
  150. Skeletal System
    • * Bone: Any of the pieces of hard, whitish tissue making up the skeleton in humans and other vertebrates
    • * Cartilage: Firm, whitish, flexible connective tissue found in various forms in structures like the ear, nose and surfaces of joints
    • * Tendons: A flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching the muscle to bone.
    • * Ligaments: A short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a join.
    • * Bone Marrow: A soft fatty substance in the cavities of bones, in which white blood cells are produced.
  151. Muscular System
    • * Three Types of Muscle Cells
    • * Skeletal Muscle Cells
    • * Voluntary
    • * Affect Locomotion
    • * Cardiac Muscle Cells
    • * Involuntary
    • * In the heart, pumps blood
    • * Smooth Muscle Cells
    • * Involuntary
    • * Aid in digestion
    • * Actin and Myosin: Proteins that form the contractile filaments of muscle cells
    • * Movements of the bones are controlled by muscles.
  152. Excretory System
    • * Nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney
    • * Water and other small molecules are filtered by the kidneys, large cells cannot pass through.
    • * Excretory Organs:
    • * Skin
    • * Excretes sweat
    • * Lungs
    • * Excretes Carbon Dioxide
    • * Kidneys
    • * Creates Urine
    • * Urinary Bladder
    • * Excretes Urine

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