DSE212 Key Terms 8

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DSE212 Key Terms 8
2012-06-09 16:21:12
DSE212 Key Terms

DSE212 Key Terms 8
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  1. Autobiographical memory
    • Personal, subjective memories that we have of past events and experiences
    • These memories include when and where (spatiotemporal knowledge) and factual information
    • Marigold Linton (1982) studied her recall of autobiographical memories through a six year diary study. She found that autobiographical memories faded at about 5% per year

    • Importance
    • Special type of memory along with semantic, episodic, procedural. Studies across all types complement each other and add to overall understanding.
    • A disproportionate number of autobiographical memories are formed between birth and 30-years of age ("reminiscence bump"), perhaps because much of our self-identity develops between these ages
  2. Flashbulb memory
    • Brown and Kulik, 1977
    • Vivid, stable autobiographical memories that are formed when we hear of a shocking and/or emotional event
    • We often remember exactly where we were when we first heard this news.
    • More likely to be formed when the news is unexpected or shocking and when it is personally important or meaningful.
    • Examples - 9/11, Kennedy

    • Importance
    • The detail and durability of flashbulb memories shows that memory can be very accurate
    • Flashbulb memories can have cultural significance and bias
  3. Encoding specificity principle
    • Endel Tulving, 1975, 1983
    • Suggests that cues that exist when we are trying to retrieve a memory can help if they match cues that were present when we encoded the memory.
    • We can remember things through different retrieval routes, accessing memories through different associations.
    • The more elaborate the encoding process, the more associations the memory has with pre-existing knowledge or memories, hence the more likely it is that some of these will overlap with retrieval cues.
    • Recognition tests (where the thing to be recognised is present) provide more retrieval cues than recall tests

    • Importance
    • Gives a lot of insight into memory processes and techniques
    • Helps police to aid witness recall in investigating crimes, using the police cognitive interview technique
  4. Episodic memory
    • Episodic memories are a form of long-term memory that include spatiotemporal details (when the event happened and where).
    • These may be formed in advance of semantic memories
    • Hodges & Graham (1998) found damage to the temporal cortex but not the hippocampus affected semantic memory, not episodic;
    • Vargha-Khadem (1997) found damage to the hippocampus but not temporal cortex affected episodic but not semantic.

    • Importance
    • Episodic memories differ from semantic memories, which do not have any details of when they were originally acquired or where
    • Explains how semantic information such as conceptual categories for animals or plants is acquired
  5. Levels of processing
    • Craik and Lockhart (1972) theorised that the deeper the processing we apply to information in the encoding process the longer we can remember it for
    • Maintenance rehearsal = shallow structural processing, e.g. learning by rote, coding in terms of sound
    • Elaborative rehearsal = deeper semantic processing, working with material to associate it with pre-existing knowledge
    • Craik and Tulving (1975) found that the percentage of words learned incidentally increased as participants had to do more thinking about the words.

    • Importance
    • Encoding affects how effectively we store information, hence how easy it is to recall, and how long we can remember it for.
    • This is a useful technique, especially in education
  6. Collective memories
    • Shared memories we create with others through common experiences.
    • Elaborated through discussion - they are socially constructed.
    • We may even recollect events that took place early on in our lives simply because others have shared these with us.
    • The memories may be(come) inaccurate, modified through re-telling.
    • An example of this is Jean Piaget’s false kidnapping memory from nanny
    • Collective memories are a way of remembering events from a multitude of perspectives.

    • Importance
    • Gergen (1999): collective remembering can help to construct and reconstruct national history, e.g. South African Commission for Truth and Equality.
    • Miller (2000): collective memories help enforce family identity