Encoding specificity principle
- Endel Tulving, 1975, 1983
- Suggests that cues that exist when we are trying to retrieve a memory can help if they match cues that were present when we encoded the memory.
- We can remember things through different retrieval routes, accessing memories through different associations.
- The more elaborate the encoding process, the more associations the memory has with pre-existing knowledge or memories, hence the more likely it is that some of these will overlap with retrieval cues.
- Recognition tests (where the thing to be recognised is present) provide more retrieval cues than recall tests
- Gives a lot of insight into memory processes and techniques
- Helps police to aid witness recall in investigating crimes, using the police cognitive interview technique