Unit 13

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Unit 13
2012-06-07 18:04:32
Unit 13

Preterm infant
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  1. Infant whose birthweight is less than 2500 g regardless of gestational age
  2. Infant whose birthweight is less than 1500 g
  3. Infant whose birthwegith is less than 1000 g
  4. Infant born before completion of 37 weeks of gestation
    premature or preterm
  5. Why are preterm babies at risk?
    b/c their organ systems are immature and they lack adequate physiologic reserves to function in an extrauterine environment
  6. Infant born b/t 34 and 36 weeks of gestation
    near-term or late-preterm infants
  7. What are near-term or late-preterm infants at risk for
    problems with thermoregulation, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, sepsis, and respiratory function
  8. Infant born b/t the beginning of 38 weeks and the completion of 42 weeks
    full term
  9. infant born after 42 weeks
    post mature or post term
  10. infant whose birhtweight falls above the 90th percentile on intrauterine growth curves
  11. infant whose birthweight falls b/t the 10th and 90th percentiles on intrauterine growth curves
  12. infant whose rate of intrauterine growth was restricted and whose birthweight falls below the 10th percentile on intrauterine growth curves
  13. Rate of fetal growth that does not meet expected growth patterns
  14. type of inhibited fetal growth in which the weight, length and head circumference are all affected
    Symmetric IUGR
  15. Type of inhibited fetal growth in which thee head circumference remains w/in normal parameters and the birthweight falls below the 10th percentile
    asymmetric IUGR
  16. birth in which the neonate manifests any heartbeat, breathes, or displyas voluntary movement, regardless of gestational age
    live birth
  17. Respiratory pattern commonly seen in preterm infants, such infants exhibit 5-10 second respiratory pauses followed by 10-15 seconds of compensatory rapid respirations
    periodic breathing
  18. Cessation of respirations of 20 seconds or more
  19. noninvasive effective means for detecting alterations in systemic BP and implementing appropriate therapy to maintain CVD fuction
  20. Surface-active phospholipid secreted by the alveolar epithelium; it reduces the surface tension of fluids that line the alveoli and respiratory passages, resulting in uniform expansion and maintenance of lung expansion at low intraalveolar pressure
  21. Method of providing breast milk or formula through a NG tub or orogastric tube; feeding can be with a tube inserted at each feeding or through an indwelling feeding tube
    Gavage tube feeding
  22. Environmental temp at which O2 consumption and metabolic rate are minimal but adequate to maintain body temp
    neutral thermal environment
  23. Method of feeding that involves the surgical placement of a tube through the skin of the abdomen into the stomach
    Gastrostomy tube feeding
  24. sucking on a pacifier during tube or parenteral feeding to improve O2 and facilitate earlier transition to nipple feeding; this type of sucking may lead to decreased energy expenditure with less restlessness
    nonnutritive sucking
  25. large for gestational age, infant is at increased risk for hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperviscosity, hyperbilirubinemia, and birth trauma
  26. What range should the infant's blood glucose be?
  27. what should the urine output be?
    40-100 ml/kg/24 hours
  28. what measurement tool is used and determined by physical characteristics
    ballard scale
  29. what is the scarf sign
    preterm's elbow will reach near or across midline, full terms elbow won't reach midline
  30. what do you do to prevent hypoglycemia and electrolyte imbalance in the preterm
    start IV fluids 160-200 ml/kg
  31. what is the caloric need of a preterm baby
    115-140 cal/kg/day
  32. how can you prevent preterm births
    • treat maternal infections
    • educate
    • No inductions less than 39 weeks
    • monitor lecithin/spingomyelin ratio of amniotic fluid
  33. What are signs of RDS
    low body temp, nasal flaring, sternal and subcostal retractions, tachypnea (>60/min)
  34. what are the clinical symptoms of bronchopulmonary displasia
    tachypnea, retractions, nasal flaring, increased work of breathing, and tachycardia, crackles with expiratory wheezing
  35. what is the treatment for bronchopulmonary displasia
    O2, nutrition, fluid restriction, and meds (diuretics, corticosteriods, and bronchodilators)
  36. What is an acute inflammatory disease of GI mucosa commonly complicated by perforation
    necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
  37. What is a chronic lung disease with a multifactorial etiology that includes pulmonary immaturity, surfactant deficiency, lung injury and stretch, barotrauma, inflammation caused by O2 exposure, fluid overload, ligation of a PDA, and genetic predisposition, and is primarily seen in infants weighing less than 1000 g who are born at less than 28 weeks
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  38. What is an acute inflammatory disease of the GI mucosa commonly complicated by perforation. Intestinal ischemia, colonization by pathogenic bacteria, and formula feelding all play a role in its development
    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
  39. Lung disorder caused by a lack of pulmonary surfactant which leads to progressive atelectasis, loss of functional residual capacity, and ventilation-perfusion imbalance w/ an uneven distribution of ventilation; usually affects preterm infants and small percent of term and near-term infants
    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
  40. What is an acquired ocular disease that leads to partial or total blindness in children due to vasoconstriction of immature retinal blood vessels
    Reinopathy of immaturity
  41. Complex, multicausal disorder that affects the developing blood vessels in hte eyes, often associated with O2 tensions that are too high for the level of retinal maturity, initially resulting in vasoconstriction and continuing problems after the O2 is discontinued. Scar tissue formation and consequent visual impariment may be mild or severe
    Retinopathy of prematurity
  42. How can meconium cause severe respiratory distress
    • inflammation of bronchioles from foreign substance
    • block small bronchioles by mechanical plugging
    • cause decrease in surfactant through lung cell trauma
  43. what causes SGA
    • usually developed IUGR while in utero
    • placental anomaly, placental damage, maternal HTN, smoker
    • lack of adequate nutrition during pregnancy
  44. What are the lab findings of an SGA baby
    • high Hct
    • polycythemia
    • hypoglycemia
  45. What are LGA causes
    • Maternal health/nutrition
    • multiparity
    • maternal DM
  46. what are sacral agenesis with weakness or deformities of the lower extremities, malformation and fixation of the hip joints, and shortening or deformity of the femurs.
    Caudal regression syndrome
  47. What are some congential anomalies that can occur in infants of diabetic mothers
    • caudal regression syndrome (hypoplasia of lower extremities )
    • heart defects (congenital heart lesions)
  48. what does TORCH stand for
    • Toxoplasmosis (get from raw food, cat feces, etc)
    • Other (gonorrhea, hep, syphillis, HIV, varicella)
    • Rubella
    • Cytomegalovirus (one of herpes viruses)
    • Herpes simplex virus
  49. Acronym used to designate creatin maternal infections during early pregnancy that are known to be associated with various congenital malformations and disorders
  50. Blood test used to determine whether maternal blood contains antibodies to the Rh antigen
    Indirect Coombs
  51. Blood test performed on cord blood to determine whether fetal blood contains maternal antibodies to the Rh antigen
    direct coombs