Unit 14

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  1. what is dysmenorrhea
    painful periods
  2. what is primary dysmenorrhea
    painful period that begins 1-2 days before menses and subsides w/in 24 hrs of flow, related to excess prostaglandin
  3. what is secondary dysmenorrhea
    associated with underlying pathology or disease such as endometriosis
  4. What are the manifestations of dysmenorrhea
    • sharp, crampy pain in suprapubic area
    • N/V
    • diarrhea
    • dull pain in lower abdomen
  5. what is the treatment for dysmenorrhea
    • NSAIDs
    • BCPs
    • prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors
    • ibuprofen
    • naproxen
  6. What is a cyclical combo of emotional and physical manifestations that occur before menses and regress during menstruation, involves endocrine, autonomic, and CNS
    Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
  7. What are the manifestations of PMS
    • appear 1-2 days before menses
    • emotional = tension, depressed, irritability, hostile, forgetful, confusion
    • physical = headache, breast tenderness, abdominal bloating, edema, joint pain, constipation, weight gain
  8. How do you manage PMS
    vitamin and mineral therapy, decrease caffiene and alcohol, increase water, analgesics, BCPs, zoloft, prozac
  9. What is no menses for 12 consecutive months
  10. what are the clinical manifestations of menopause
    hot flashes, mood swings
  11. How do you manage menopause
  12. What is primary amenorrhea
    diagnosed if woman has not begun to menstruate by age 16
  13. what is secondary amenorrhea
    absence of menses for 6 months in woman who previously had regular cyclic bleeding or 12 months in woman with history of irregular bleeding
  14. What is excessive vaginal bleeding at normal intervals
  15. What are the manifestations of menorrhagia
    • H&H may show anemia
    • uterine fibroids
    • lesions
    • spontaneous abortions
    • IUD use
    • endometritis
    • hypothyroidism
    • cancer
  16. What is irregular vaginal bleeding between cycles
  17. What are the manifestations of metrorrhagia
    • ectopic pregnancy
    • infections
    • IUD
    • ovulation
    • cervical polyps
    • breakthrough bleeding with BCPs
    • neoplasias
    • coagulation disorders
    • cancer
    • STIs
  18. What is an ascending pelvic infection that involves the upper genital tract
  19. what are the causes of PID
    • chlamydia
    • gonococci
    • staphylococci
    • streptococci
    • untreated bacterial infections
    • mostly STIs
  20. what are the manifestations of PID
    • asymptomatic in early stages
    • malaise, fever, chills, anorexia, N/V, aching, tachycardia, pain in abdomen or pelvis, odorour discharge
  21. what is the medical management for PID
    • treat causative organism, antibiotics
    • some abscesses must be removed by surgery
  22. what is an abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue is found in internal sites other than the uterus
  23. What is a long term effect of endometriosis
  24. What are benign uterine tumors that arise from the uterine muscle tissue. They are the most common tumors of the female genital tract
  25. What are the clinical manifestations of leiomyomas
    • asymptomatic
    • relate to tumor size, location and number
    • abnormal bleeding which may be excessive in amount or duration and anemia may occur
    • dysmenorrhea
    • urinary frequency
  26. Descent of urinary bladder
  27. Inflammation of the vulva
  28. Protrusion of vaginal wall musculature
    vaginal prolapse
  29. inflammation of the vagina
  30. Abnormal tube-like passage from the vagina to bladder
    vaginal fistulae
  31. descent of the bowel/protrusion of the posterior wall of vagina
  32. Infertility with PID is due to
    scarring by inflammatory process and subsequent closing and scarring of fallopian tubes
  33. a total hysterectomy is the removal of what
    uterus and cervix
  34. total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is a total hysterectomy along with the removal of
    tubes and ovaries
  35. why should you keep the HOB at 45 degrees for a person with PID
    to promote drainage
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Unit 14
Unit 14
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