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What are the 3 objectives of first aid?
- Prevent further injury
- Prevent infection
- Loss of life
How many fundamental elements of first aid are there?
What are the 4 methods of controlling bleeding?
- Direct pressure
- Pressure point
- Tourniquet as a last resort
What is a pressure point?
A pressure point is a point on the body where a main artery lies near the skin surface, and over a bone
How many pressure points are there and where are they located?
11 they are located on the temple, the jaw, collar bone, the inner upper arm, the inner elbow, the wrist, upper thigh, the groin, the knee, and ankle.
What is a first degree burn?
It produces redness warmth or mild pain
What is a second degree burn?
It causes red blistered skin and severe pain.
What is a third degree burn?
It destroys tissues, skin and bones in severe cases, however severe pain maybe absent due to nerve endings being destroyed.
What are the 2 types of fractures and describe them?
A closed or simple fracture is a broken bone without a break in the skin.
An open or compound fracture a break in the skin with possible bone protrusion.
What is electrical shock?
Electrical shock is when a person comes into contact with an electric energy source. The wide variety of injuries that can result from an electrical shock range from little or no evidence of injury to severe trauma with associated cardiac arrest.
What is an obstructed airway?
Obstruction of the upper airway can be caused by many things depending on age and situation. Indications of an airway obstruction are inability to talk, grasping and pointing to the throat, exaggerated breathing, efforts and the skin turning a bluish color.
What are the 2 types of heat related injuries
Heat exhaustion. A serious disturbance of blood flow to the brain heart and lungs. The skin is cool moist and clammy and the pupils are dilated. Body temperature maybe normal or high. The victim is usually sweating profusely.
Heat stroke. a very serious condition caused by a breakdown of the sweating mechanism of the body. The victim is unable to eliminate excessive body heat build up. Symptoms may include hot and or dry skin uneven pupil dilation and a week rapid pulse
What are the 3 types of cold weather injuries
Hypothermia. A general cooling of the whole body call by exposure to low or rapidly falling temperature cool moisture snow or ice. The victim may appear pale and unconscious and even be taken for dead. Breathing is slow and shallow pulse may be faint or even undetectable. The body tissue feels semi rigid and the arms and legs may feel stiff.
Superficial frostbite. Caused when ice crystals are forming in the upper skin layers after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
Deep frostbite. Develops when ice crystals are forming in the deeper tissues after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
What is shock?
A life threatening medical condition where by the body suffers from insufficient blood flow throughout the body as a result of severe injury or illness.
What is septic shock?
It's results from bacteria multiplying in the blood and releasing toxins. Common causes of those for pneumonia intra abdominal infections such as ruptured appendix and meningitis.
What is anaphylactic shock?
A type of severe hypersensitivity or allergic reaction caused by allergies to insect stings medicines or foods.
What is cardiogenic shock?
It occurs when the heart is damaged and unable to supply sufficient blood to the body. This can be the end result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure.
What is hypovolemic shock?
Call by severe blood and fluid loss such as from traumatic bodily injuries which makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body.
What is neurogenic shock?
Caused by spinal cord injury usually as a result of a traumatic accident or injury.