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What is Chemical Warfare?
Chemical Warfare is the employment of chemical agents that are intended for use in military operatuons to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate personnle due to their physical effect.
What is a Nerve Agent?
Liquid casuality agents that disrupt nerve impulses to the body while damaging body functions rather that tissue.
What is a Blister Agent?
Liquid or solid casualty agents that can cause inflammation, blisters, and general destruction of tissues which often results in temporary blindness and/or death.
What is a Blood agent?
Gaseous casualty agents that attack the enzymes carrying oxygen in the blood stream. Rapid breathing or choking may occur due to lack of oxygen in the blood.
What is a choking agent?
Gaseous or liquid casualty agents with initial symptoms that include; tears, dry throat, nausea, vomiting, and headache. The lungs can become filled with fluid, making the victim feel as if they are drowning, causing breathing to become rapid and shallow.
What does M9 paper do?
Detects the presence of liquid chemical agents by turning a red or reddish color, it does not detect chemical agent vapors.
What does Atropine/2-PAM-chloride Auto Injector do?
Used as specific therapy for nerve agent casualties, they are issued for intramuscular injection, self-aid or first aid.
What is Biological Warfare?
Biological Warfare is the use of agents to cause disease, sickness, or death to reduce the effectiveness of opposing combatant forces is. The basic division in biological agents is between pathogens and toxins.
What are Pathogens?
The pathogens that could be used as biological agents include bacteria, rickettsia, viruses, fungi, protozoa and prions.
What are Toxins?
The categorization of toxins is based on the organisms (source) that produce them and the physiological affects the toxins cause in humans.
What are the 2 types of toxins?
- The major groupings by source are mycotoxins (which are from fungi), bacterial toxins, algal toxins, animal venoms and plant toxins.
- The primary groups based on physiological effects are neurotoxins, cytotoxins, enterotoxins and dermatoxins.
What is IPE?
Individual Protective Equipment
What does the IPE for chemical/biological agent environments consists of?
- - Protective mask MCU-2P with components (C-2 canister filter)
- - Advanced chemical protective garment (ACPG)
- - Chemical protective gloves and liners
- - Chemical protective overboots and laces
- - Skin decontamination kit
- Medical self-treatment supplies are not considered IPE but are provided to complement the individual protection capability.
What is Radiological warfare?
Radiological Warfare is the deliberate use of radiological weapons to produce widespread injury and death of all life.
What are the types on nuclear explosions?
- High altitude air burst occurs at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet, with ionosphere disruptions and EMP.
- Air burst where fireball does not reach the surface. The vacuum created collects debris caused by the severe blast damage resulting in radiation fallout.
- Surface Burst has the worst fallout due to the fireball touching the surface which results in massive radioactive fallout.
- Shallow underwater burst has a small fireball and blast wave however, it causes large waves and water contamination.
- Deep underwater burst is similar to the shallow underwater burst but with less visual effect and yields greater contaminated water.
What are the shipboard shielding stations categories?
- Ready-shelter stations are just inside the weather envelope, with access to deep shelter. They provide minimum shielding from nuclear radiation and allow the crew to remain close to battle stations.
- Deep-shelter stations are low in the ship and near the centerline. They provide maximum shielding from nuclear radiation, often requiring personnel to be far removed from battle stations.
What is the DT-60 dosimeter?
DT-60 dosimeter is a non-self reading high range casualty dosimeter, which has to be placed in a special radiac computer-indicator to determine the total amount of gamma radiation to which the wearer is exposed in the 0-600 roentgens.
What is Mission oriented Protective Posture?
MOPP is a management tool that is used to coordinate the use of systems and equipment in Chemical or Biological environment. Full protective clothing and equipment will not be necessary in all CB threat scenarios and using the full IPE could result in unacceptable personnel performance degradation.
What are the MOPP levels?
- MOPP level 0. Issue IPE, accessible within five minutes.
- - MOPP level 1- Afloat. JSLIST, MASK, Gloves readily accessible.
- - Ashore. Don protective equipment, M9 tape.
- - MOPP level 2- Afloat. Mask carried, decon supplies stage.
- - Ashore. Additional to level 1 is don protective over-boots.
- - MOPP level 3- Afloat. GQ, install filters, don over-boots.
- - Ashore. fill canteens, activate decon stations.
- - MOPP level 4- Afloat. Don mask/hood, gloves, Circle William, countermeasure washdown.
- - Ashore. Gloves with liners, untie bow in retention cord, loop between legs and secure to web belt.