Biology 196 Chapter 5 Class 1.4

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Biology 196 Chapter 5 Class 1.4
2012-06-08 03:48:47

Summer course 06/06/12
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  1. Plasma membrane
    • Phospholipids
    • Thin structure forming the outer surface of every cell
    • Selectively permeable barrier
    • Constant internal environment
    • Communicating
    • Binding and adhering
  2. Cytosol
    Consists mostly of water that contains dissolved ions, small molecules, and soluble macromolecules (proteins)
  3. Cytoplasm
    Semi-liquid, jelly, where things are produced in cell
  4. Chromosomes
    • Prokaryotic=circular
    • DNA molecules packaged with protein
  5. Nucleoid
    Region in the cell where DNA is located for prokaryotes
  6. Bacterial Cell Wall
    • Supports the cell and determines its shape
    • Contain peptidoglyycan
  7. Peptidoglycan
    Polymer of amino sugars that are cross-linked by covalent bonds to peptides
  8. Nucleus
    Contains most of cell's genetic material
  9. Nuclear Envelope
    Double membrane around nucleus (2 layers of phospholipids)= altogether 4 layers
  10. Nuclear Pore
    Control the passage of macromolecules
  11. Nuclear Lamina
    Network of intermediate filaments, provide shape of nucleus
  12. Chromatin
    DNA wrapped around protein, packaged chromosomes
  13. Nucleolus
    • Densely stained fibers granuleso
    • Site of ribosomalRNA (rRNA) synthesis for ribosomes
  14. Free Ribosomes
    Not associated with membrane
  15. Bound Ribosomes
    On membrane synthesizing proteins for membranes or secretion
  16. Endomembrane System
    • Internal membranes
    • ER, Golgi, lysosomes, vesicles, etc
  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Interconnected membranes branching throughout the cytoplams, forming tubs and sacs.
    • Cisternae
  18. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • No ribosomes on surface
    • Synthesizes lipids (oils, phospholipids, steroids)
    • Metabolize glycogen in animals
    • Detoxify drugs and poisons (alcohol) (beer belly is actually an enlarged liver)
  19. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Attached ribosomes
    • Attached ribosomes synthesize membrane and secreted proteins
    • Very abundant in secretory cells
    • Membrane factory (lipids, triglycerides, phospholipids)
    • Responsible for glycoproteins and glycolipids
  20. Cisternae
    Membrane tubules (encased in ER) space in middle (pita bread analogy)
  21. Transport Vesicles
    • Move cargos from one part to another
    • Move along cytoskeletal tracks
  22. Cis Golgi
    • Same side/ face ER
    • Region lies nearest to the nucleus of Rough ER
  23. Trans Golgi
    • Face plasma membrane
    • Region lies closest to the plasma membrane
  24. Lysosome
    • Membrane bounded sacs of hydrolytic enzymes
    • Space for digesting macromolecules
    • Functions: Digestion, autophagy
  25. Phagocytosis
    Particles are taken by a cell of another cell or larger particle
  26. Autophagy
    Lysosomes fuse with worn out parts/organelles
  27. Primary Lysosome
    • Contain digestive enzymes
    • Sites where macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, lipds) are hydrolyzed into their monomers
  28. Secondary Lysosome
    • Phagosome (pocket formed in plasma membrane turned into small vesicle) fuses with a primary lysosome
    • Digestion occurs
  29. Food vacuoles
    Fuse with lysosomes
  30. Contractile Vacuoles
    Found in freshwater protists to pump water
  31. Central Vacuoles
    • Found in mature plant cells
    • Selectable transport solutes
    • Functions: Stockpiling, Storing pigments, Storing defensins, Provide turgor pressure
  32. Mitochondria
    ATP generation
  33. Cristae
    Contain key molecules for the generation of ATP from fuel molecules in mitochondria
  34. Mitochondrial Matrix
    Contains ribosomes, DNA, and several of the enzymes used for energy conversions
  35. Plastids
    Present only in cells of plants and certain protists
  36. Chromoplasts
    Stores pigments
  37. Leucoplasts
    Stores starches and fats
  38. Chloroplasts
    • Site of photosynthesis
    • Contain chlorophyll
  39. Stroma
    Fluid in which the grana are suspended
  40. Grana
    Series of flat, closely pakced, circular compartments (thylakoid)
  41. Peroxisomes
    • Generate/ degrade hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
    • Fatty acid breakdown, detoxify alcohol/ harmful compounds
  42. Glyoxysomes
    Convert lipids to carbohydrates during germination/growth