Cognitive approach.txt

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Cognitive approach.txt
2012-06-08 08:44:13
personality cognitive approach learning

personality cognitive approach to learning
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  1. Cognitive theories of personality background
    Root in Gestalt psychology; humans seek meaning in life; we organize our sensations into meaningful perceptions, complex stimuli not reducible to sum of their parts
  2. Gestalt perceptual figure
  3. Kurt Lewin
    Field theory
  4. Field theory
    Lewin's idea that behavior determened by internal, external and structural forces and relationships between person and environment
  5. Field theory's life space
    all internal and external forces
  6. Lewin's contemporaneous causation
    behavior caused the moment of its occurrence by all influencing at the moment
  7. Jean Piaget
    swiss, bio, married student
  8. Piaget's Schema theory
    schema (cog structure that organizes knowledge about one's environment, determines how we think and act) is made up of varios scripts (eating at a restaurant)
  9. Piaget's Categorization
    we organize events, objects and people,
  10. Positive effects of categorization
    quickly understand complex info
  11. Neg effecs of categorization
  12. Control of attention
    We notice salient (highly noticable) features and combine these with current 'goals' to decided where to direct attentoion (A.D.H.D.)
  13. George Kelly
    phys, math, and social problems
  14. George Kelly's theory
    Personal construct theory
  15. Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
    people actively endeavor to understand world and construct in their OWN theories
  16. 'every man is, in his own particular way, a scientist
  17. Explanatory Style
    characteristic way of explaining life events
  18. Explanatory style poles
    Optimism and pessimism
  19. Arguded deffensive pesimism
    Julie Norem
  20. Gardner's 7
  21. Julian Rotter
    brookly, father jewish imigrant, read freud and adler in hs, took classes with Lewin
  22. Rotter's views
    behavior depends upon outcome expectancy and reinforcement value
  23. Rotter's behavior potential
    likelihood behavior will be performed in situation
  24. Specific vs. Generalized expectancies (Rotter)
    Not wanting to go to dad's xmas party vs. all parties are fun
  25. Rotter Locus of control
    beliefs about on'es ability to AFFECT outcomes
  26. Rotter's EXTERNAL focus of control
    events are beyond their control
  27. Rotter's INTERNAL focus of control
    more achievement-oriented
  28. Albert Bandura
    canada, parents no formal ed, small town, intro to psych because it fit schedule
  29. Bandura's self-system
    set of cog processes by which individual perceives, evaluates, and regulates his or her own behavior so its functionally efficient and appropriate
  30. Bandura's Observational learning
    vicarious learning and modeling
  31. Bandura's learning agressive behavior experiment
    bobo doll
  32. Bandura's factors that influence learning
    outcome expectancy, characteristics of model, chracteristics of behavior (simple/salient), attributes of observer (self esteem, dependence, cog develpmnt)
  33. Bandura's processes underlying observational learning
    attention, retention, motor reproduction, MOTIVATION
  34. Bandura's self efficacy
    belief about how competently one will be able to enact a behavior in a particular situation
  35. Self efficacy determines
    if we try to act, how long we persist in behavior, how succcess or failure affects future behavior
  36. self efficacy results from
    past success/failures, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, emotional reactions
  37. Turing test
    set to disprove computers acting as humans, shortcommings of AI
  38. Cog approach analogy
    humans as scientists and info processors
  39. Advantages of cog approach
    explains personality through uniquely huan processes of congition, active nature of human thought, dif cog skills viewed as central to individuality
  40. Limits of cog approach
    ignors unconscious and emotional aspects, theories tend to oversimplify complex thought processes, underemphasize situational influences on behavior
  41. Cog view of free will
    free will through active human though process (YES)
  42. assessment techniques of cog theories
    decisions tasks, bio analysis, attributional analyses, study of cog development, observation
  43. Implications for cog therapy
    uses understanding of perception, cognition, and attribution to change thought processes