trait and skill approach.txt

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trait and skill approach.txt
2012-06-08 09:09:02
trait skill approach personality

trait and skill approach of personality
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  1. History of trait approaches rooted in
    hippocrates' bodily humors, darwin (individual differences through evolution), galton (Intelligence measuring tests)
  2. Carl Gustav Jung
    swiss, parents pastors, head injury awaked jung's interest in nature of mind in paranormal phenomenon, believed he was 2 personalities
  3. Carl and Freud
    worked with freud but questioned his emphasis on sexual motivation, recorded hsi own dreams, fantisies, and visions, and drew painted and sculpted
  4. Carl Jung's attitudes of the mind
  5. Carl Jung's Modern trait approach (beginnings)
    8 types (4 functions x 2 attitudes); functions (sensing, thinking, feeling, intuiting); myers-briggs type indication
  6. Jung's myers briggs indicatior
    measures extro/intro; used by vocational counselors
  7. Raymond B. Cattell
    used and refined,factor analysis, data driven not theory driven
  8. Cattell's tests
    q-data, t-data, L-data, 16-PF
  9. Global factors from primary factors
    EX, AX, TM, IN, SC
  10. Henry Murray
    ny, wealthy family, afffair, wwii spy psychologist
  11. Murray's 'motives'
    internal psychobiological forces that help induce particular behavior patterns, needs, life tasks, personal strivings
  12. Murray's types of motivations
    n Ach, n Aff, n Power, n exh (TAT test)
  13. Gordon Allport
    indiana, protestant work ethic, harvard and had culture shock
  14. Gordon allport's statement
    "the dynamic organization within the individual of thos psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought"
  15. Allport's views
    each person has unique qualities, phylosophical, humanistic, scholary approach.
  16. Allport. regularities in behavior exist because
    indiv. views situations and stimuli same way, funcionally equivalent.
  17. Allports common traits
    due to bio heritage and culture, there are common traits
  18. Allport's proprium
    core of personality
  19. Allport's functionally autonomous
    traits are independent of childhood, thus only important in adulthood
  20. Allport'sIdiographic moethods
    take into account each persons uniqueness (q-sort, diaries, interviews)
  21. Allports personal dispositions
    a trait particular to individual
  22. Allport's cardinal dispositions
    PD that exert an overwhelming influence on behavior
  23. Central dispositions (allport)
    several PD around which personality is organized
  24. The big 5
    extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness (lack of impulsivity), neuroticism, openness to experience
  25. the big 5 facts
    created through factor analysis, emerged from data (not theory), behavior genetics and cross cultural research suggest these traits are 'real'
  26. The big 5 predicts
    useful and important outcomes, does NOT mean there are only 5 traits
  27. Eysenck's big three
    extroversion (sensitive to signals of reward), neuroticism (sensitive to signals of punishment), psychoticism (hostile, unhappy)
  28. Consensus in personality judgments
    importance of consensus in determining reality of personality traits, friends judgments vs strangers (zero acquaintance); highest agreement for extroversion and conscientiousness
  29. Expressive style
    vocal characteristics, facial expressions, body movements
  30. Analogy of trait and skill approach
    humans are clusters of temperaments, traits and skills
  31. advantages of trait and skill approach
    simplifies personality to small number of basic dimensions; looks for deeper cunsistency underlying behaviors, good assessment techniques, allows for indivuality
  32. Limits of trait and skill approach
    oversimplification, base people on test scores, underestimate variability, underestimate unconscious motives and early experience (MOST ANTI-FRUDIAN)
  33. Trait and skill approach views of free will
    Allows for free will at margines. after motives exert their influence.
  34. common assessment for trait and skill approach
    factor analysis, self report, testing of styles and skills, doc analysis, behavioral observations, interviews
  35. implications for therapy
    if much of personality is structured around a small nhumber of key dispositions then we can change our goals and orientations but probably not our basic dispositional 'natures'