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  1. What protein is involved in dialysis-associated Amyloidosis?
    B2-microglobulin which is derived from MHC class I protein.
  2. Describe the progression of neoplasm?

    hyperplasia (dysplasia, anaplasia)

    carcinoma in situ

    invasive carcinoma

    metastasis (seed and soil)
  3. What encompasses staging a cancer?
    T = size of tumor

    N = Node involvement

    M = Metastasis
  4. What are the neoplasms associated with Tuberous Sclerosis?
    Cardiac rhabdomyoma, angiomyolipoma, astrocytoma
  5. What are the genes involved in the gain of function cancer of tyrosine kinase?
    abl - CML

    erb-B2 - breast, ovarian, and gasrtic carcinomas

    ret - Multiple endocrine neoplasia types II and III
  6. p16 leads to what cancer when a loss of function mutation occurs?
  7. What is the S-100 marker used for?
    Melanoma, neural tumors, and astrocytomas
  8. 4 Paraneoplastic effects of small cell lung carcinoma.
    1. ADH - SIADH

    2. PTH related peptide - hypercalcemia

    3. ACTH - Cushing's syndrome

    4. ab against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at NMJ - Lambert Eaton syndrome
  9. Where are psammoma bodies seen?
    1. Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid

    2. Serous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary

    3. Meningioma

    4. Malignant mesothelioma
  10. Vd equation
    Image Upload
  11. CL equation
    Image Upload
  12. What is phase 1 metabolism?
    • Involves cytochrome P-450
    • leads to reduction, oxidation, hydrolysis which yields slightly polar, water-soluble metabolites.
  13. Name three drugs that have zeroth order elimination at high concentrations.
    1. Phenytoin

    2. Ethanol

    3. Aspirin
  14. What are Nicotinic Ach receptors?
    • ligand gated Na+/K+ channels.
    • Nn (autonomic ganglia)
    • Nm(NMJ)
  15. What are the functions assoicated with the M3 receptor?
    It is a Gq receptor -> ca2+ and PKC

    • - increase exocrine gland secretions
    • - increase gut peristalsis
    • - increase bladder contraction
    • - bronchoconstriction
    • - increase pupillary sphincter muscle contraction (miosis)
    • - ciliary muscle contraction (accommodation)
  16. What increases the level of NE at the synapse?
    • Amphetamines
    • TCA
    • cocaine
    • Calcium
    • angiotensin II activation
  17. What inhibits production of Ach?
    vesamicol - inhibits combination of Acetyl-CoA + choline via chAT
  18. What is neostigmine?
    anticholinesterase that increases endogenous ACh but does not penetrate the CNS

    • USED for:
    • Postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, reversal of neuromuscular junction blockade(postop)
  19. Patient presents with the following:
    increased body temperatures
    dry mouth
    flushed skin

    What other side effects might be seen with the main causative agent?
    This is the toxicity of Atropine

    • Other S/E:
    • acute angle-closure glaucoma in elderly
    • urinary retention in men with prostatic hyperplasia
    • hyperthermia in infants
  20. What is methscopolamine?
    • Muscarinic antagonist used in the treatment of peptic ulcer (not so much now because of PPI)
    • reduce GI spasms
    • reduce salivation
Card Set:
2012-06-08 21:49:26
STEP review

STEP 1 review
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