STEP 1

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  1. What protein is involved in dialysis-associated Amyloidosis?
    B2-microglobulin which is derived from MHC class I protein.
  2. Describe the progression of neoplasm?
    normal

    hyperplasia (dysplasia, anaplasia)

    carcinoma in situ

    invasive carcinoma

    metastasis (seed and soil)
  3. What encompasses staging a cancer?
    T = size of tumor

    N = Node involvement

    M = Metastasis
  4. What are the neoplasms associated with Tuberous Sclerosis?
    Cardiac rhabdomyoma, angiomyolipoma, astrocytoma
  5. What are the genes involved in the gain of function cancer of tyrosine kinase?
    abl - CML

    erb-B2 - breast, ovarian, and gasrtic carcinomas

    ret - Multiple endocrine neoplasia types II and III
  6. p16 leads to what cancer when a loss of function mutation occurs?
    melanoma
  7. What is the S-100 marker used for?
    Melanoma, neural tumors, and astrocytomas
  8. 4 Paraneoplastic effects of small cell lung carcinoma.
    1. ADH - SIADH

    2. PTH related peptide - hypercalcemia

    3. ACTH - Cushing's syndrome

    4. ab against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at NMJ - Lambert Eaton syndrome
  9. Where are psammoma bodies seen?
    1. Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid

    2. Serous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary

    3. Meningioma

    4. Malignant mesothelioma
  10. Vd equation
    Image Upload 1
  11. CL equation
    Image Upload 2
  12. What is phase 1 metabolism?
    • Involves cytochrome P-450
    • leads to reduction, oxidation, hydrolysis which yields slightly polar, water-soluble metabolites.
  13. Name three drugs that have zeroth order elimination at high concentrations.
    1. Phenytoin

    2. Ethanol

    3. Aspirin
  14. What are Nicotinic Ach receptors?
    • ligand gated Na+/K+ channels.
    • Nn (autonomic ganglia)
    • Nm(NMJ)
  15. What are the functions assoicated with the M3 receptor?
    It is a Gq receptor -> ca2+ and PKC

    • - increase exocrine gland secretions
    • - increase gut peristalsis
    • - increase bladder contraction
    • - bronchoconstriction
    • - increase pupillary sphincter muscle contraction (miosis)
    • - ciliary muscle contraction (accommodation)
  16. What increases the level of NE at the synapse?
    • Amphetamines
    • TCA
    • cocaine
    • Calcium
    • angiotensin II activation
  17. What inhibits production of Ach?
    vesamicol - inhibits combination of Acetyl-CoA + choline via chAT
  18. What is neostigmine?
    anticholinesterase that increases endogenous ACh but does not penetrate the CNS

    • USED for:
    • Postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, reversal of neuromuscular junction blockade(postop)
  19. Patient presents with the following:
    increased body temperatures
    tachycardia
    dry mouth
    flushed skin
    cycloplegia
    constipation
    disorientation

    What other side effects might be seen with the main causative agent?
    This is the toxicity of Atropine

    • Other S/E:
    • acute angle-closure glaucoma in elderly
    • urinary retention in men with prostatic hyperplasia
    • hyperthermia in infants
  20. What is methscopolamine?
    • Muscarinic antagonist used in the treatment of peptic ulcer (not so much now because of PPI)
    • reduce GI spasms
    • reduce salivation
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157848
Card Set
STEP 1
Description
STEP 1 review
Updated
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