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What protein is involved in dialysis-associated Amyloidosis?
B2-microglobulin which is derived from MHC class I protein.
Describe the progression of neoplasm?
hyperplasia (dysplasia, anaplasia)
carcinoma in situ
metastasis (seed and soil)
What encompasses staging a cancer?
T = size of tumor
N = Node involvement
M = Metastasis
What are the neoplasms associated with Tuberous Sclerosis?
Cardiac rhabdomyoma, angiomyolipoma, astrocytoma
What are the genes involved in the gain of function cancer of tyrosine kinase?
abl - CML
erb-B2 - breast, ovarian, and gasrtic carcinomas
ret - Multiple endocrine neoplasia types II and III
p16 leads to what cancer when a loss of function mutation occurs?
What is the S-100 marker used for?
Melanoma, neural tumors, and astrocytomas
4 Paraneoplastic effects of small cell lung carcinoma.
1. ADH - SIADH
2. PTH related peptide - hypercalcemia
3. ACTH - Cushing's syndrome
4. ab against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at NMJ - Lambert Eaton syndrome
Where are psammoma bodies seen?
1. Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid
2. Serous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary
4. Malignant mesothelioma
What is phase 1 metabolism?
- Involves cytochrome P-450
- leads to reduction, oxidation, hydrolysis which yields slightly polar, water-soluble metabolites.
Name three drugs that have zeroth order elimination at high concentrations.
What are Nicotinic Ach receptors?
- ligand gated Na+/K+ channels.
- Nn (autonomic ganglia)
What are the functions assoicated with the M3 receptor?
It is a Gq receptor -> ca2+ and PKC
- - increase exocrine gland secretions
- - increase gut peristalsis
- - increase bladder contraction
- - bronchoconstriction
- - increase pupillary sphincter muscle contraction (miosis)
- - ciliary muscle contraction (accommodation)
What increases the level of NE at the synapse?
- angiotensin II activation
What inhibits production of Ach?
vesamicol - inhibits combination of Acetyl-CoA + choline via chAT
What is neostigmine?
anticholinesterase that increases endogenous ACh but does not penetrate the CNS
- USED for:
- Postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, reversal of neuromuscular junction blockade(postop)
Patient presents with the following:
increased body temperatures
What other side effects might be seen with the main causative agent?
This is the toxicity of Atropine
- Other S/E:
- acute angle-closure glaucoma in elderly
- urinary retention in men with prostatic hyperplasia
- hyperthermia in infants
What is methscopolamine?
- Muscarinic antagonist used in the treatment of peptic ulcer (not so much now because of PPI)
- reduce GI spasms
- reduce salivation