Fleet Marine Force Fundamentals.txt

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Fleet Marine Force Fundamentals.txt
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  1. History, Customs & Courtesies: State the six areas of naval doctrine.
    • NDP 1, Naval Warfare
    • NDP 2, Naval Intelligence
    • NDP 3, Naval Operations
    • NDP 4, Naval Logistics
    • NDP 5, Naval Planning
    • NDP 6, Naval Command and Control
  2. History, Customs & Courtesies: What is the USMC birthdate? Where did this occur? How?
    10 November, 1775 in Philadelphia at Tun Tavern, by a resolution of the Continental Congress, which �raised two battalions of Marines.�
  3. History, Customs & Courtesies: Who is considered the first Commandant?
    Capt. Samuel Nicholas
  4. History, Customs & Courtesies: When did USMC come under the Navy? What gives the Marines their current structure, mission & function?
    1834. The National Security Act of 1947, amended in 1952
  5. History, Customs & Courtesies: Explain the Marine Corps motto. When was it adopted?
    The official motto for the Marine Corps, �Semper Fidelis,� Latin for �Always Faithful.� The motto, sometimes abbreviated, �Semper Fi,� was adopted about 1883.
  6. History, Customs & Courtesies: What were the previous mottos of the USMC?
    • �Fortitudine� (with fortitude), c. 1812.
    • "By Sea and by Land," trans. of Royal Marines� "Per Mare, Per Terrem." �To the Shores of Tripoli,� 1805-1848.
    • 1848 (after capture of Mexico City), this motto was revised to �From the Halls of Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli.�
  7. History, Customs & Courtesies: Who do the Marines share their motto with?
    England�s Devonshire Regiment
  8. History, Customs & Courtesies: Describe the Marine Corps emblem and state its significance
    The emblem consists of an eagle clenching the Marine Corps motto in its beak, the globe (Western Hemisphere), and the anchor. The globe and anchor signify the worldwide service and sea traditions. The spread eagle represents the nation itself.
  9. History, Customs & Courtesies: Explain the term: �Leatherneck�.
    This nickname dates back to the leather stock, or neckpiece worn as part of the Marine Uniform during the years of 1775-1875. Utilized to protect the neck from saber slashes, the leather bands around their throats had a side effect of ensured that Marines kept their heads erect.
  10. History, Customs & Courtesies: Explain the term "Devil Dog".
    In 1918, the Germans received a thorough indoctrination on the Marines fighting ability at the Battle of Belleau Wood. The Marines persistent attack had the Germans calling them �Teufelhunden,� translated �Devil Dogs.�
  11. History, Customs & Courtesies: Explain the term: �Esprit de corps�
    Spirit of the Unit: This implies devotion and loyalty to the Marine Corps, with deep regard for its history, traditions and honor. It is the epitome of pride in a unit.
  12. History, Customs & Courtesies: Explain �Uncommon valor was a common virtue�
    Refers to largest of all-Marine battles in history: Admiral Nimitz applied the Marines� fighting ability on Iwo Jima to the entire Corps� contribution during that war
  13. History, Customs & Courtesies: Explain �First to Fight�
    Marines have been in the forefront of every American war since the founding of the Marine Corps. They entered the Revolution in 1775, just before the Declaration of Independence was signed. They have carried out more than 300 landings on foreign shores. They have served everywhere, from the poles to the tropics. Their record of readiness reflects pride, responsibility and challenge.
  14. History, Customs & Courtesies: What is the red (blood) stripe, what does it signify and who's allowed to wear it?
    The right to wear scarlet stripe was conferred on the Marine Corps after the Battle of Chapultepec, during the Mexican War, In honor of Marines killed or wounded during the action. The initial uniform trousers issued in 1798 after the reconstitution of the Marine Corps had scarlet piping. E-4 (CPL) and up
  15. History, Customs & Courtesies: Discuss the general concepts for a company level formation
    • A company consists of the following platoons: Company headquarters and two or more platoons.
    • For marches, members of HQ are formed as the company or as higher authority directs.
    • The company uses formations such as line, column, (of threes, etc.) mass, extended mass, and column of platoons in line.
  16. History, Customs & Courtesies: Where does the guidon bearer stand in a company formation?
    The guidon bearer is one pace to the rear and one pace to the left of the company commander or the First Sergeant
  17. History, Customs & Courtesies: If the First Sgt is unavailable who takes his/her post?
    The senior SNCO, takes post and performs the duties of the First Sergeant.
  18. History, Customs & Courtesies: Discuss the procedures for conducting a personnel inspection
    • 1) Conduct a personnel inspection
    • 2) Note all discrepancies as necessary
    • 3) Determine corrective actions as necessary
    • 4) Report all discrepancies to appropriate personnel.
  19. History, Customs & Courtesies: Discuss Service Alpha uniform
    • Navy equivalent = Service Dress Blue/White
    • The service "A" uniform may be prescribed for parades, ceremonies, social events, and as the uniform of the day. It will normally be worn when reporting for duty, unless otherwise prescribed by the commander.
  20. History, Customs & Courtesies: Discuss Service Bravo uniform
    • Navy equivalent = Winter Blue
    • The service "B" uniform (with long sleeve shirt and tie) is the same as the service "A" uniform except that the service coat is not worn.
  21. History, Customs & Courtesies: Discuss Service Charlie uniform
    • Navy equivalent = Summer Khaki/Summer White
    • The short sleeve khaki shirt with appropriate service trousers or skirt/slacks is designated as the service "C" uniform. During the winter season, commanders may, at their discretion, when the weather requires, authorize the service "C" uniform.
  22. History, Customs & Courtesies: Discuss Camouflage utilities
    • Navy equivalent = NWUs
    • IN THEORY, FOR TACTICAL WEAR ONLY
  23. History, Customs & Courtesies: The emblem was adopted from who? Who modified it? When? What was it modified to depict?
    The British (Royal) Marines. Brigadier General Jacob Zeilin in 1868 to depict the Marines as both American and maritime.
  24. History, Customs & Courtesies: When is the Navy birthday?
    October 13, 1775
  25. History, Customs & Courtesies: Tell me about the Mameluke Sword.
    Since 1825, standard sword for Marine officer dress. Modeled on the sword that O�Bannon received from Prince of Tripoli following his exploits in the First Barbary War (1801-1805); specifically Battle of Derna.
  26. History, Customs & Courtesies: Who is the Grand Old Man of the Marine Corps?
    Gen. Archibald Henderson, 5th Commandant of the Marine Corps (1820-1859) for 30 YEARS. introduced higher standards of personal appearance, training, and discipline
  27. History, Customs & Courtesies: What did Lt. Gen Chesty Puller do when he needed a toothpick?
    He used a freakin guidon
  28. History, Customs & Courtesies: What is your favorite USMC victory?
    Barbary Coast Campaign (Shores of Tripoli, 1805), Battle of Chapultepec (Halls of Montezuma, 1847), Battle of Belleau Wood (Teufelhunden, 1917), Battle of Guadalcanal (Turning point in War, 1942), Battle of Iwo Jima ("Uncommon valor was common virtue", 1945), Battle of Okinawa ("Typhoon of Steel", 1945)
  29. History, Customs & Courtesies: How many CMCs were court-martialed?
    • 2:
    • LCOL WHARTON (3rd CMC, 1804-1819) - neglect of duty and dishonorable behavior, acquitted
    • LCOL GALE (4th CMC, 1819) - being drunk and visiting locations of ill-repute, found guilty and dismissed from USMC
  30. History, Customs & Courtesies:
  31. Mission & Organization: How are Marines trained, organized, and equipped?
    For offensive amphibious employment and as a �force of readiness�
  32. Mission & Organization: Name some of the mission requirements of the Marines (7)
    • (1) Provide Fleet marine Forces with combined arms and supporting air components for service with the United States Fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and for the conduct of such land operations as may be essential to the execution of a naval campaign.
    • (2) Provide detachments and organizations for service on armed vessels of the Navy and security detachments for the protection of naval property at naval stations and bases.
    • (3) Develop, in coordination with the Army, Navy, and Air Force, the doctrine, tactics, techniques, and equipment employed by landing forces in amphibious operations.
    • (4) Provide marine forces for airborne operations, in coordination with the Army, Navy, and Air Force, according to the doctrine established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
    • (5) Develop, in coordination with the Army, Navy, and Air Force, the doctrine, tactics, techniques, and equipment for airborne operations.
    • (6) Expand peacetime components to meet wartime needs according to the joint mobilization plans.
    • (7) Perform such other duties as the President may direct.
  33. Mission & Organization: What does HQMC consist of?
    Consist of the Commandant of the Marine Corps and staff Agencies
  34. Mission & Organization: Who is CMC directly responsible to?
    Secretary of the Navy
  35. Mission & Organization: Where is HQMC located?
    Location: Pentagon (Washington, DC) and Quantico, VA
  36. Mission & Organization: What is the function of HQMC?
    Administration / Discipline / Internal Organization / Training / Requirements / Efficiency / Readiness of the Service / Material Support System
  37. Mission & Organization: What is MARFOR?
    Operating forces the heart of the Marine Corps � comprise the forward presence, crisis response, and fighting power that the Corps make available to US Unified COMBATANT Commanders.
  38. Mission & Organization: Name the 2 combatant command level service component commands.
    Marine Corps has established two combatant command level service component commands: Marine Corps Forces, Atlantic (MARFORLANT) and Marine Corps Forces, PACIFIC (MARFORPAC)
  39. Mission & Organization: Where is MARFORCOM and MARFORPAC assigned to and located?
    The Commander, Marine Corps Forces, Atlantic, is assigned to the Commander, Joint Forces Command (Norfolk, VA); Commander, Marine Corps Forces, Pacific, is assigned to the Commander, U.S. Pacific Command (Camp Smith, Hawaii)
  40. Mission & Organization: Name the Service Combat Commands (10)
    Central Command (CENTCOM) / Pacific Command (PACCOM) / European Command EURCOM / US Northern Command USNORTHCOM / US Southern Command USSOUTHCOM / US FORCES KOREA (USFK) / TRANSCOM / STRATCOM / SOCOM / AFRICOM /
  41. Mission & Organization: What is the purpose of MARFORCES?
    Provide forces for Service Combat Commanders
  42. Mission & Organization: Who is COMMARFORLANT assigned to?
    USJFCOM (United States Joint Forces Command)
  43. Mission & Organization: What is the purpose of MCCDC?
    • To Develop Marine Corps warfighting concepts;
    • To determine associated required capabilities in the areas of Doctrine, Organization, training and education, Equipment, and support facilities to enable the Marine Corps to field combat-ready forces.
  44. Mission & Organization: Where is MCCDC located?
    Quantico, Virginia
  45. Mission & Organization: Under the Direction of the CMC MCCDC has what 3 things?
    (1) Expeditionary Forces Development Center; (2) Training Education Command; (3) Marine Corps Warfighting Lab
  46. Mission & Organization: What does MCCDC stand for?
    Marine Corps Combat Development Command
  47. Mission & Organization: What is the purpose of MARCORSYSCOM
    • To serve as the Commandant�s principal agent for equipping the Operating Forces to accomplish their warfighting mission
    • Information Systems and Infrastructure
    • Battle Space Management and Air Defense Systems
    • MAGTF C4ISR
  48. Mission & Organization: What is MAGTF C4ISR?
    • C4= Command, Control, Computers, Communication;
    • I = Intelligences;
    • S/R = Surveillance and Reconnaissance Information
  49. Mission & Organization: Where is MARCORSYSCOM located?
    Quantico, VA
  50. Mission & Organization: What are the 4 elements of a MAGTF?
    CE, GCE, ACE, MLG
  51. Mission & Organization: What is the concept of task organization with the MAGTF?
    • (1) MAGTFs are balanced, combined-arms forces with organic ground, aviation, and sustainment elements;
    • (2) They are flexible, task-organized forces that can respond rapidly to a contingency anywhere in the world and are able to conduct a variety of missions.
  52. Mission & Organization: The MAGTF CE is task organized for what?
    To provide command and control capabilities (including intelligence and communications) necessary for effective planning, direction, and execution of all operations.
  53. Mission & Organization: The MAGTF GCE is task organized for what?
    To conduct ground operations in support of the MAGTF mission.
  54. Mission & Organization: What is the GCE normally comprised of?
    An infantry organization reinforced with requisite artillery, reconnaissance, armor, and engineer forces and can vary in size and composition from a rifle platoon to one or more Marine divisions.
  55. Mission & Organization: The MAGTF ACE is task organized for what?
    To support the MAGTF mission by performing some or all of the six functions of Marine aviation.
  56. Mission & Organization: What is the MAGTF ACE comprised of?
    An aviation organization that is augmented with appropriate air command and control, combat, combat support, and CSS units.
  57. Mission & Organization: How are the MAGTF elements organized?
    Task-organized
  58. Mission & Organization: What is the MLG comprised of?
    To provide the full range of CSS functions and capabilities needed to support the continued readiness and sustainability of the MAGTF as a whole.
  59. Mission & Organization: How many days of supplies for a MEF?
    60
  60. Mission & Organization: How many days of supplies for a MEB?
    30
  61. Mission & Organization: How many days of supplies for a MEU?
    15
  62. Mission & Organization: What is the smallest MAGTF element that has all 6 functions of Naval Aviation?
    MAW (because it has MACG)
  63. Mission & Organization: Who does the SRIG belong to?
    To CE in MEF, and a detachment to the CE for MEU
  64. Mission & Organization: What is the purpose of the MEF?
    Principal Marine Corps warfighting organization. It is capable of missions across the range of military operations, through amphibious assault and sustained operations ashore in any environment. With appropriate augmentation, the MEF CE is capable of performing as a JTF headquarters.
  65. Mission & Organization: Who normally commands a MEB?
    BGEN
  66. Mission & Organization: What does the MEB provide?
    • (1) Transitional capability between the forward deployed MEU and the MEF;
    • (2) Supported combatant commanders with scalable, warfighting capability across the spectrum of military Ops;
    • (3) An Expeditionary force it is capable of rapid deployment and employment via amphibious shipping, strategic air, sealift, geographic or maritime propositioning forces assets.
  67. Mission & Organization: What are the elements of a MEF?
    CE, MAW, Division, MLG
  68. Mission & Organization: What are the elements of the current MEB?
    CE-5th battalion 10th Marines. Regimental COmbat Team 7, MAG 40, CLR-2
  69. Mission & Organization: What are the elements of a MEU?
    CE, V-22/H46 squadron reinforced, Infantry battalion reinforced, CLR
  70. Mission & Organization: What is the GCE of a MEU comprised of?
    An infantry battalion reinforced with artillery, reconnaissance, engineer, armor, assault amphibian units, and other detachments as required.
  71. Mission & Organization: What is the ACE of a MEU comprised of?
    A reinforced helicopter squadron with transport, utility, and attack helicopters, a detachment of vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) fixed-wing attack aircraft, and other detachments as required.
  72. Mission & Organization: What is a SPMAGTF?
    Special Purpose MAGTF. A SPMAGTF is organized to accomplish missions for whom the MEF and MEU are not appropriate or too large to employ. It can be deployed by amphibious or commercial ships, tactical or strategic airlift, or organic Marine Corps Aviation.
  73. Mission & Organization: How many Maritime prepositioning ships are especially configured to transport supplies for the U.S. Marine Corps?
    16
  74. Mission & Organization: How many Maritime Pre-positioning squadrons are there? And where are they located?
    • 3. MPS Squadron 1 (Mediterranean Sea); MPS Squadron 2 (Diego Garcia area); and MPS Squadron 3, (Guam/Saipan area).
    • Technically, 4 (Mayport, GA)
  75. Mission & Organization: How much supply is aboard a MPS ships at a given time?
    provisions for 15,000 Marine Corps MAGTF personnel for up to 30 days
  76. Mission & Organization: Aside from the 3 squadrons, where else is there pre-positioning forces located?
    Mayport, GA
  77. Mission & Organization: Tell me about a MEU (SOC)
    The MEU routinely receives special training before deploying that results in their designation as special operations capable.
  78. Mission & Organization: How does a MEU deploy?
    Embarked aboard a three- to four-ship Navy Amphibious Readiness Group (ARG) with sustainment for 15 days, a forward-deployed MEU(SOC) provides a sea based quick-reaction force that is capable of a wide variety of missions.
  79. Mission & Organization:
  80. Mission & Organization:
  81. Mission & Organization:
  82. Mission & Organization:
  83. Mission & Organization:
  84. Mission & Organization:
  85. Safety: What is the point of ORM?
    • Is a decision making tool used by people at all levels to increase operational effectiveness
    • Increases our ability to make informed decisions.
    • Minimizes risks to acceptable levels
    • Reduce mishaps, lower costs, and provide for more efficient use of resources
  86. Safety: List the 5 steps of ORM.
    • Identify Hazards
    • Assess Hazards
    • Make Risk Decisions
    • Implement Controls
    • Supervise
  87. Safety: What kind of controls are there?
    Administrative and Engineering
  88. Safety: Give examples of Administrative controls
    Any thing procedural. SOP. Training. Limiting exposure. Placards
  89. Safety: Give examples of Engineering controls.
    Bells, whistles, key locks
  90. Safety: What's PPE?
    Personal Protective Equipment
  91. Safety: Who is responsible for providing PPE?
    The command
  92. Safety: Give examples of PPE?
    ear plugs, cranials, safety glasses, gloves, boots, aprons, respirators
  93. Safety: Why is PPE important?
    Reduces loss of time for the injured, compensation costs claims, and loss of materials and equipment
  94. Safety: What is a safety stand-down? How often much they occur?
    • Is a period, usually of 1 or 2 days, set aside for safety training, awareness, and drills
    • Safety stand-downs conducted at least once a year
    • May be called any time
  95. Safety: What is the purpose of the Naval Aviation Safety Program?
    enhances operational readiness when it preserves the lives and enhances the well-being of its members by protecting the equipment and material they need to accomplish their mission.
  96. Safety: What class LASERs must be in the LASER hazard program?
    3B & 4
  97. Safety: Why have a LASER safety program?
    Training and operational procedures to minimize the risk of over exposure to LASERs which could cause injury to personnel
  98. Safety: What is a Class A Fire? How is it extinguished?
    • CLASS A: Involve solid substances;
    • Water is the usual means of extinguishing.
  99. Safety: What is a Class B Fire? How is it extinguished?
    • CLASS B: Involve flammable liquids; CO2 & purple �K� powder (PKP) are effective.�
    • For large fires, aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) is the usual means of extinguishing.
  100. Safety: What is a Class C Fire? How is it extinguished?
    • CLASS C: Ignite in electrical/electronic equipment;
    • CO2 is the preferred extinguishing agent.
  101. Safety: What is a Class D Fire? How is it extinguished?
    • CLASS D: Involve combustible metals.�
    • Low Velocity fog at extreme range upwind of this type of fire.
  102. Safety:
  103. Safety:
  104. Safety:
  105. Safety:
  106. Administrative: What are the 2 chains of command
    Administrative & Operational
  107. Administrative: Who is in the Admin chain that is not in the operational chain?
    CMC and Sec Navy
  108. Administrative: List your administrative chain of command
    from CO -> BGen. Crenshaw, CG 3D MLG -> LGen Glueck, CG 3 MEF -> Gen. Amos, Commandant, USMC -> Mr. Mabus, SecNav -> Mr. Panetta, SecDef -> Mr. Obama, POTUS
  109. Administrative: What is the roll of the command Sgt Maj?
    • Directly responsible to the CG.
    • Acts as the principal enlisted advisor to the Commanding General on all matters pertaining to Marine enlisted personnel.
    • Acts as a member of the Commanding General's party on visits and readiness evaluations/inspection trips when enlisted personnel are involved.
    • Keeps apprised of all policies of the Commanding General and disseminates such information to enlisted personnel
  110. Administrative: What is the roll of the Command Master Chief?
    • Advise the Commanding General, staff and unit commanders regarding Navy policy for Navy enlisted matters.
    • Interfaces and maintains the communication with the Command Master Chiefs and Navy personnel of Major Subordinate Commands (MSC's), and providing them assistance and guidance as appropriate
  111. Administrative: On the MEF Level, who does the Command Master Chief advise?
    Advises the CG, III MEF, Surgeon, Chaplain, and Dental Officer on all matters pertaining to the morale, welfare, utilization, and training of Navy enlisted members
  112. Administrative: What is the T/O?
    Table of Organization. Table which prescribes the normal wartime mission, organizational structure, and personnel of the command. Not an authorization document but is basis for.
  113. Administrative: What is the T/E?
    Table of Equipment. An equipment allowance document that prescribes basic allowances of organizational equipment, and provides the control to develop, revise, or change equipment authorization inventory data. Not an authorization document,but is basis for.
  114. Administrative: What is the TA?
    Training Allowance. What the command is allowed to have in training supplies, including ammunition for ranges
  115. Administrative: What is SORTs?
    Status of Resources and Training System. While the T/O, T/E and TA is what the command is allowed to have, the SORTs shows what the command actually has.
  116. Administrative: What is J/G/S?
    Joint/flag level section/O-6 & lower command level section
  117. Administrative: List the sections in a command
    • 1 - Administration
    • 2 - Intelligence
    • 3 - Operations
    • 4 - Supply & Logistics
    • 5 - Planning
    • 6 - Communications
    • 7 - Safety & Inspector office
    • 8 - Comptroller
  118. Administrative: The G-1 division consists of:
    • Manpower Branch
    • Operations and Plans Branch
    • Reserve Affairs Branch
    • Adjutant
    • Personnel
    • Career Planning
  119. Administrative: The G-2 division consists of:
    • Executive/Administrative
    • Intelligence Operations
    • Counterintelligence/Human Intelligence
    • Signals Intelligence/Special Security
    • Planning
  120. Administrative: The G-3 division consists of:
    • Current Operations/Exercises
    • Future Operations
    • Air
    • Force Fires/Training
    • Tactical Exercise Control Group (TECG)
    • Special Operations Training Group (SOTG)
    • Reserve Affairs
  121. Administrative: The G-4 division consists of:
    • Engineer
    • Strategic Mobility
    • Logistic Plans
    • Supply
    • Health Services
  122. Administrative: The G-5 division consists of:
    • General war planning
    • Contingency planning
    • Forces planning
    • Joint policy and doctrine/command relationships
    • Service programs
    • Rules of Engagement and other matters as may be directed
  123. Administrative: The G-6 division consists of:
    • Maintenance Section
    • Information Systems Management Section
    • MEF Communications Management Security (COMSEC)
    • Management office (MCMO).
  124. Administrative: What does the Chief of Staff do?
    Directly responsible to the Commanding General for the coordination of activities of the general and special staffs
  125. Administrative: What offices fall under Chief of Staff?
    Band, Office of Staff Sec, Protocol Officer
  126. Administrative: What does the Chaplain do?
    Directly responsible to the Commanding General for religious matters. and serves as principal advisor to the CG in religious, moral, and ethical issues affecting II MEF
  127. Administrative: What does the Wing Surgeon do?
    Directly responsible to the Commanding General and functions under the staff cognizance of the AC/S, G-4 with respect to medical and medical service matters.
  128. Administrative: What does the PAO do?
    responsible for advising the Commanding General on all public affairs matters.
  129. Administrative: What does the Comptroller do?
    Advises the Commanding General in all matters pertaining to financial management
  130. Administrative: What does SJA do?
    Directly responsible to the Commanding General for legal matters
  131. Administrative:
  132. Administrative:
  133. Administrative:
  134. Administrative:
  135. Air Combat Element: What is the primary mission of Marine Corps Aviation?
    offensive (seizure) and defensive support for Marine Corps Ground Operations and Maritime Ops
  136. Air Combat Element: What are the 6 functions of Marine Corps Aviation
    • Anti-Air Warfare
    • Assault Support
    • Air Reconnaissance
    • Control of Aircraft and Missiles
    • Electronic Warfare
    • Offensive Air Support
  137. Air Combat Element: What are the sub categories of Anti-air warfare?
    • Offensive AAW
    • Air Defense
  138. Air Combat Element: What are the types of assault support?
    • HIGHLIGHT: TRAP
    • Combat assault transport
    • Aerial delivery operations
    • Aerial refueling
    • Air evacuation
    • TRAP
    • Air logistical support
    • Battlespace illumination
  139. Air Combat Element: What are the types of Air Recon?
    • Visual Reconnaissance
    • Multi-sensor Imagery Reconnaissance
    • Electronic Reconnaissance
  140. Air Combat Element: What are the types of Electronic Warfare?
    • Electronic attack (EA)
    • Electronic protection
    • EW support
  141. Air Combat Element: What are the types of offensive air support?
    Deep (DAS) and Close (CAS)
  142. Air Combat Element: What is offensive air support?
    OAS is �those air operations conducted against enemy installations, facilities, and personnel to directly assist the attainment of MAGTF objectives by the destruction of enemy resources or the isolation of his military force.�
  143. Air Combat Element: What is anti-air warfare?
    That action required to destroy or reduce to an acceptable level the enemy air and missile threat
  144. Air Combat Element: What is offensive anti-air warfare?
    Constitutes operations conducted against the enemy air or air defense system before it can be launched or assume an attacking role. Consist mainly of air attacks to destroy or neutralize hostile: Aircraft, Airfields, Radars, Air defense systems and supporting areas
  145. Air Combat Element: What is defensive anti-air warfare?
    includes all defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the earth�s atmosphere or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack.
  146. Air Combat Element: What are the two forms of air defense?
    Active / Passive
  147. Air Combat Element: What is active air defense?
    Direct defensive action taken to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such an attack
  148. Air Combat Element: What is passive air defense?
    Constitutes all measures, other than active defense, taken to minimize the effects of hostile air action
  149. Air Combat Element: What is assault support?
    The use of aircraft to provide tactical mobility and logistic support for the MAGTF, the movement of high priority cargo and personnel within the immediate area of operations, in-flight refueling, and the evacuation of personnel and cargo
  150. Air Combat Element: What is air reconnaissance?
    the acquisition of intelligence information by employing visual observation and/or sensors in air vehicles
  151. Air Combat Element: What is electronic warfare?
    any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy
  152. Air Combat Element: What is the control of aircraft and missiles?
    involves the coordinated employment of facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and personnel that allows the ACE commander to plan, direct, and control the efforts of the ACE to support accomplishment of the MAGTF�s mission
  153. Air Combat Element: How many MAWs are there?
    Marine aviation is divided into three active duty MAWs and one Reserve MAW.
  154. Air Combat Element: Where are the MAWs located?
    • 1st MAW - MCAS Futenma, Okinawa, Japan (elements in Iwakuni and Hawaii)
    • 2nd MAW Cherry Pt, NC (elements elsewhere in NC and SC)
    • 3rd MAW Miramar, CA (elements elsewhere in CA and AZ)
    • 4th MAW New Orleans, LA (elements elsewhere)
  155. Air Combat Element: What do MAWs include?
    MAWs include Marine aircraft, air control, and wing support groups. Each group includes the squadrons and/or battalions that are necessary to complete the groups� roles in Marine aviation.
  156. Air Combat Element: Are all 4 MAWs organized the same?
    Task Organized: Each of the four wings may have a different organization; however, each wing is capable of performing all six functions of Marine aviation
  157. Air Combat Element: What is the MWSG?
    Marine Wing Support Group. provides all essential ground support requirements to aid designated fixed- or rotary-wing components of a Marine FOB.
  158. Air Combat Element: What is the MACG?
    Marine Aircraft Control Group. MACG headquarters coordinates all aspects of air command and control and air defense within the MAW.
  159. Air Combat Element: What is the MAG?
    Marine Aircraft Group. The MAG is an administrative and tactical CE. It is the smallest aviation unit that is designed for independent operations with no outside assistance except access to a source of supply.
  160. Air Combat Element: What are the two types of MAGs within the MAW;
    • Rotary-wing (MAG VH) - The primary mission is to provide assault support;
    • Fixed-wing (MAG VF/VA) - The primary mission is to conduct AAW and OAS operations from advance bases, FOBs, and aircraft carriers.
  161. Air Combat Element: What is the ACE of a MEF?
    • The ACE supports a MEF with one or more MAWs.
    • Support to the MEF may include assets from more than one MAW that are task organized to form a MAW (reinforced).
  162. Air Combat Element: What is the ACE of a MEU?
    ACE supports a MEU with a task-organized squadron that usually consists of a mix of: Rotary-wing aircraft; Short take-off and landing aircraft; A Marine air control group (MACG) detachment; Marine aviation logistics squadron (MALS) detachments
  163. Air Combat Element: What does the MACG consist of?
    MTACS, a Marine air support squadron (MASS), one Marine air control squadron (MACS), a low-altitude air defense (LAAD) battalion, and an MWCS
  164. Air Combat Element: What does MTACS do?
    Marine Tactical Air Command Squadron. provides equipment, maintenance, and operations for the TACC of the ACE as a component of the MAGTF. LOOKS AT RADAR AND MAKES TACTICAL COMMANDS.
  165. Air Combat Element: What does MACS do?
    Marine Air Control Squadron. provides air surveillance and control of aircraft and surface-to-air weapons for AAW; continuous all-weather radar and non-radar ATC services and airspace management in support of a MAGTF. PROCEDURAL CONTROL!
  166. Air Combat Element: What does MWCS do?
    Marine Wing Communication Squadron. provides expeditionary communications for the ACE of a MEF, including the phased deployment of task-organized elements thereof
  167. Air Combat Element: What does MASS do?
    Marine Air Support Squadron. provides DASC capabilities for control and coordination of fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft operating in direct support of MAGTF forces
  168. Air Combat Element: What does LAAD do?
    Low altitude air defense battalion. provides close-in, low-altitude, surface-to-air weapons fires in defense of MAGTF assets defending forward combat areas, maneuver forces, vital areas, installations, and/or units engaged in special/independent operations
  169. Air Combat Element: What does MALS do?
    Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron. provides aviation-logistic support, guidance, and direction to MAG squadrons on behalf of the commanding officer, as well as logistic support for Navy-funded equipment in the supporting MWSS, MACS, and Marine wing mobile calibration complex.
  170. Air Combat Element: What does VMGR do?
    Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron . KC-130Js. Refuel + transport + cargo
  171. Air Combat Element: What does VMAQ do?
    Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron.Prowlers, Airborne EW.
  172. Air Combat Element: What does VMU do?
    Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron. UAVs- recon
  173. Air Combat Element: What does VMFA do?
    Marine Fighter/Attack Squadron. FA-18C (1 seaters) - can land on CVN (as opposed to AW)
  174. Air Combat Element: What does VMFA/AW do?
    Marine All Weather Fighter/Attack Squadron. FA-18D (2 seaters) - FAC (A); ground attack at night;
  175. Air Combat Element: What does VMA do?
    Marine Attack Squadron. Harriers.
  176. Air Combat Element: What does HMH do?
    Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron. Super Stallions.
  177. Air Combat Element: What does VMM do?
    Marine Tilt-rotor squadron. Ospreys.
  178. Air Combat Element: What does HML/A do?
    Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron. Cobras and Hueys.
  179. Air Combat Element: What does the MWSG typically include?
    being dissolved: H&HS, 2-MWSS (fixed), 2-MWSS (rotary)
  180. Air Combat Element: Tell me about UH-1.
    Huey - Primary Task: Utility; F/R: Rotary; Engine: 2; Crew: 2
  181. Air Combat Element: Tell me about F/A 18.
    • Hornet -
    • Primary Task: OAS, Multi-task;
    • F/R: Fixed;
    • Engine: twin;
    • Crew: C=1/D=2
  182. Air Combat Element: Tell me about KC-130J.
    • Hercules (Sumo) -
    • Primary Task: Refuel, Air Assault;
    • F/R: Fixed (prop);
    • Engine: 4;
    • Crew: ?
  183. Air Combat Element: Tell me about CH-46E.
    • Sea Knight -
    • Primary Task: Troop assault;
    • F/R: Rotary;
    • Engine: Twin; Crew: 2
  184. Air Combat Element: Tell me about CH-53E.
    • Super Stallion -
    • Primary Task: Cargo (can lift a howitzer, downed aircraft);
    • F/R: Rotary;
    • Engine: 3;
    • Crew: 2
  185. Air Combat Element: Tell me about AV-8B.
    • Harrier II -
    • Primary Task: OAS;
    • F/R: Fixed (VSTOL);
    • Engine: 2?;
    • Crew: 1
  186. Air Combat Element: Tell me about MV-22.
    • Osprey -
    • Primary Task: combat support, combat service support, and Special Operations missions;
    • F/R: Rotary (VSTOL);
    • Engine: Multi;
    • Crew: 2
  187. Air Combat Element: Tell me about EA-6B.
    • Prowler -
    • Primary Task: Electronic Warfare;
    • F/R: Fixed (midwing);
    • Engine: twin;
    • Crew: 4 (1 pilot)
  188. Air Combat Element: Tell me about AH-1W.
    • Super Cobra -
    • Primary Task: OAS: Fire Support, Fire Support Coordination;
    • F/R: Rotary;
    • Engine: Twin;
    • Crew: 2 (tandem seat)
  189. Air Combat Element: Tell me about UAV.
    • Shadow/Scan Eagle �
    • Primary Task: Reconnaissance;
    • F/R: Fixed;
    • Engine: 1 (remote controlled);
    • Crew: 0
  190. Air Combat Element: Tell me about C-12.
    • Huron -
    • Primary Task: Operational Support;
    • F/R: Fixed (prop);
    • Engine: twin;
    • Crew: 2
  191. Air Combat Element: What are the 3 levels of maintenance?
    Depot Level, Intermediate Level, Organizational Level
  192. Air Combat Element: What is the highest level of aviation maintenance?
    D-LEVEL MAINTENANCE - Maintenance done on material requiring major rework or a complete rebuild of parts. (e.g. Cherry Point);
  193. Air Combat Element: What is the middle level of aviation maintenance?
    I-LEVEL MAINTENANCE - Maintenance which is the responsibility of, and performed by, designated maintenance activities for direct support of using organizations. (e.g. MALS);
  194. Air Combat Element: What is the lowest level of aviation maintenance?
    O-LEVEL MAINTENANCE - Maintenance which is the responsibility of, and performed by, a using organization on its assigned equipment. (e.g. Squadron)
  195. Air Combat Element:
  196. Air Combat Element:
  197. Air Combat Element:
  198. Air Combat Element:
  199. Air Combat Element:
  200. Ground Combat Element: What is the mission of the Marine division?
    To execute amphibious assault operations and such other operations as may be directed; Provide the ground amphibious forcible-entry capability to an amphibious task force (ATF) and conduct subsequent land operations in any operational environment.
  201. Ground Combat Element: What is a division comprised of?
    • Headquarters Battalion
    • Three Infantry Regiments
    • Tank Battalion
    • Assault Amphibian Battalion
    • Combat Engineer Battalion
    • Artillery Battalion
    • Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
    • Communications Battalion
  202. Ground Combat Element: List the levels from Division to lowest level (4 man team)
    (1) Division; (2) Regiment; (3) Battalion; (4) Company; (5) Platoon; (6) Squad; (7) Fire Team
  203. Ground Combat Element: What is the GCE of a MEU comprised of?
    • Weapons Company
    • Marine Support Company
    • One Battalion with Three Infantry Companies (Reinforced) and an artillery battery
    • Reconnaissance platoon
    • Combat engineer platoon
    • Light armored reconnaissance
    • Assault amphibian platoon
    • TOW section
    • Tank Platoon (when required)
    • SFCP
    • and a Scout Sniper platoon
  204. Ground Combat Element: What is the GCE of a MEB?
    • Composed of an infantry regiment reinforced:
    • Artillery Unit
    • Reconnaissance Unit
    • Engineer Unit
    • Light armored reconnaissance units
    • Assault amphibian units
    • Other attachments as required
  205. Ground Combat Element: What is the primary mission of the infantry regiment?
    Locate, close with, and destroy the enemy by fire and maneuver or to repel his assault by fire and close combat. The infantry regiment is the major element of close combat power of the Marine division. The regiment, with appropriate attachments, is capable of independent, sustained operations
  206. Ground Combat Element: What is the primary mission for artillery in the division?
    Furnish close and continuous fire support by neutralizing, destroying, or suppressing targets that threaten the success of the supported unit
  207. Ground Combat Element: What is is the primary source of fire support for the Marine division
    Artillery regiment
  208. Ground Combat Element: What does the artillery regiment provide?
    Fire support coordination section to assist in establishing and operating an FSCC at the division COC
  209. Ground Combat Element: What is the mission of the tank battalion? Where is the Tank Bn located on Okinawa?
    Close with and destroy the enemy by using armor-protected firepower, shock effect, and maneuver and to provide anti-mechanized fire in support of the Marine division. There is no Tank Bn on Okinawa.
  210. Ground Combat Element: What is the primary mission of the headquarters battalion?
    Exercise command, control, and administration of the Marine division
  211. Ground Combat Element: What does the headquarters battalion consist of?
    • H&S company
    • Division headquarters with an H&S company
    • Reconnaissance company
    • Special security communications team
    • Communications company
    • MP company
    • Division band
    • Truck company
  212. Ground Combat Element: What is the mission of the assault amphibian battalion?
    Sea to land the surface assault elements of the landing force and their equipment in a single lift from assault shipping during amphibious operations to inland objectives and to conduct mechanized operations and related combat support in subsequent operations ashore
  213. Ground Combat Element: What is the mission of the LAR battalion?
    Use the LAVs to perform reconnaissance, security, limited offensive/delaying operations
  214. Ground Combat Element: State the area of responsibility for the following component: LAR Bn
    To conduct reconnaissance, security, and economy-of-force operations and, within capabilities, conduct limited offensive or delaying operations that exploit the unit�s mobility and firepower.
  215. Ground Combat Element: State the area of responsibility for the following component: Combat Engineer Bn
    To enhance the mobility, countermobility, and survivability of the Marine division through close combat engineer support and to provide the limited general engineering support that is required for the functioning of the Marine division
  216. Ground Combat Element: What are used to exploit the offense in all types of combat operations?
    Speed and firepower, combined with maneuver
  217. Ground Combat Element: State the area of responsibility for the following component: Reconnaissance Bn
    Plan, coordinate and conduct reconnaissance and surveillance operations to observe, identify, and report enemy activity, and collect intelligence
  218. Ground Combat Element: What differentiates Recon Bn from LAR Bn?
    LAR Bn has the LAVs, Recon has the Marines
  219. Ground Combat Element: What is the main battle tank of the Marine Corps?
    M1A1
  220. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the M1A1.
    Tank. Uses high speed, maneuverability, and a variety of weapons to attack and destroy enemy tanks, equipment, and forces. The tank provides protection from enemy weapons.
  221. Ground Combat Element: What is the main gun on the M1A1?
    M256 120mm
  222. Ground Combat Element: What are the 3 major roles of tank units?
    Maneuver Element; Antiarmor Protection; Mechanized Operations
  223. Ground Combat Element: What do tanks offer the MAGTF?
    The MAGTF a vast array of capabilities: excellent cross-country mobility, sophisticated communications, enhanced target acquisition, lethal firepower, and effective armor protection
  224. Ground Combat Element: How are tanks designed to be employed?
    Primarily as an offensive weapon
  225. Ground Combat Element: Employment of the tank battalion must take advantage of what?
    The speed, mobility, and firepower of the organization
  226. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the AAV
    • Classic High Armor Troop Assault Vehicle
    • Crew: 3
    • Armament: 50 cal machine gun and MK 19 40mm machine gun
    • Speed: 20-30mph (land); 6mph (water)
    • Carry: 21 combat ready troops or 5 tons
  227. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the AAAV/EFV
    • Expeditionary Fight Vehicle (still in development)
    • Crew: 3
    • Speed: 45mph (land); 30mph (water)
    • Armament: Bushmaster II 30�mm cannon
    • Carry: 17 combat ready troops
  228. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the LAV.
    • Lightly armored, eight-wheeled, amphibious vehicle.
    • Crew: 3 (driver, a gunner, and a vehicle commander)
    • Armament: 25mm cannon and 2-7.62mm machine guns
    • Speed: 62 mph (land); 6 mph (water)
    • Carry: 4 infantry scouts in rear.
  229. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the M777.
    • 155mm Medium Sized Howitzer.
    • Towed artillery piece that provides field artillery fire support for all USMC MAGTF units and can be dropped by parachute or transported by CH-53E helicopter
    • Crew: 9 Marines
    • Weight = 9,000 lbs
    • Maximum effective range: conventional ammo = 15 miles; rocket assisted projectile = 18.6 miles; Extended Range = 24 miles.
  230. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the MK-45.
    • 5/54 naval gun: designed to be used against surface warships, anti-aircraft defense, and shore bombardment
    • Crew: 3
    • Magazine: Automatic loader with 20 rounds
    • Maximum Range: 13 nm; extended range: 64 nm
    • Caliber: 5 inch
  231. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the M2.
    • Heavy Machine Gun (a.k.a. Ma Deuce)
    • Has been in use longer than any other small arm in U.S. inventory (since 1920�s)
    • Weight (gun and tripod) = 128 pounds
    • Maximum rate of fire: 750 - 850 rounds/min
    • Maximum range = 7,400m
    • Maximum effective range = 700-1,830m
    • Magazine: Belt fed (capable of single shot and automatic)
    • Caliber: .50 cal
    • DOESN"T EVEN HAVE TO HIT YOU TO FREAKING SHOOT YOUR HEAD OFF
  232. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the .50 BMG Cartridge.
    Really big bullet. Used in M2 Machine Gun; Used in sniper rifles.
  233. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the 81mm mortar.
    • Muzzle-loaded, drop-fired
    • Weight of components = 121.5 pounds
    • Range: minimum to maximum = 70 - 4,737 meters
  234. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the 60mm mortar.
    • Muzzle-loaded; drop fired or trigger fired.
    • Deployed by 3 member squad.
    • Weight of components: 6.5 pounds
    • Range: minimum to maximum = 70 - 3,490 meters
  235. Ground Combat Element: What are the cartridges that are used in the 81/60mm mortars?
    High explosive; White phosphorus; Illuminating; Training practice
  236. Ground Combat Element: What is the objective 60mm mortar?
    • Immediate objective is to deliver a large volume of accurate and timely fire to inflict as many casualties as possible on the enemy.
    • Also: suppressive indirect fire, neutralize or destroy area or point targets, screen large areas with smoke, and to provide illumination or coordinated HE/illumination
  237. Ground Combat Element: What are the components of the 60mm mortar?
    • The Canon
    • bi-pod assembly
    • sight unit
    • the base plate M8 or M7
  238. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the M249.
    • SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon) - Machine Gun
    • Weight = 17-24 lbs
    • Maximum range = 3,600m
    • Maximum effective range: 800-1000m
    • Magazine: Ammunition box carries 200 rounds held by a disintegrating metallic split-link belt
    • Caliber = 5.56 mm
  239. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the M240G.
    • Medium Machine Gun
    • Weight = 25.6 lbs
    • Maximum range = 3,725m
    • Maximum effective range = 1800m
    • Magazine: fed by disintegrating belt of metal links
  240. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the M203.
    • Grenade Launcher. Attached to M16.
    • Weight loaded= 3.5 pounds Weight unloaded = 3 pounds
    • Maximum range = 400 meters
    • Maximum effective range = 150-350m
    • Minimum arming range = 14 - 38 meters
    • Caliber = 40 mm
  241. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the MK-19.
    • How does one describe "awesome"?
    • Automatic Grenade Launcher.
    • Weight: 141 lbs (Employed from a tripod or from a variety of vehicles)
    • Maximum Range = 2,212 meters
    • Magazine: disintegrating metallic split-link belt
    • Caliber: 40 mm grenade ammunition
  242. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the M16.
    • Current version in use M16A4
    • Automatic fire (3 round bursts) or Semi-automatic fire (single shot)
    • Weight: 8-8.8 lbs
    • Maximum range = 3534m
    • Maximum effective range = 550-800m
    • Magazine: 30 bullets
    • Caliber = 5.56 mm
  243. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the M9.
    • Service Revolver - pistol
    • Weight: 2-2.5lbs
    • Maximum Range: 1800m
    • Maximum Effective Range: 50m
    • Magazine: 15 bullets
    • Caliber: 9mm
  244. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the TOW system.
    • Targeted Optical Wire-guided weapon system.
    • Goofy looking attachment on HMMWV or independent.
    • The $20,000 bullet.
  245. Ground Combat Element: Tell me about the FGM-148
    • Anti-tank missile fielded to replace TOW antitank missiles.
    • Fire-and-forget missile with lock-on before launch and automatic self-guidance.
    • Top attack against armored vehicles but can also take a direct-attack mode for use against buildings, fortifications and helicopters.
    • Range = 75 � 2500 meters
    • Cost = $40,000 each
  246. Ground Combat Element: What is fire support?
    fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives
  247. Ground Combat Element: What is fire support coordination?
    the planning and executing of fires so that targets are adequately covered by a suitable weapon or group of weapons
  248. Ground Combat Element: What is the role of the fire direction center?
    Integrate fire support with the scheme of maneuver
  249. Ground Combat Element: Where is the fire direction center located?
    On the front�with the artillery regiment.
  250. Ground Combat Element: What does the Fire Direction Center do?
    Computes firing data, fire direction, for the guns. The process consists of determining the precise target location based on the observer's location if needed, then computing range and direction to the target from the guns' location
  251. Ground Combat Element:
  252. Ground Combat Element:
  253. Ground Combat Element:
  254. Ground Combat Element:
  255. Ground Combat Element:
  256. Logistics Combat Element: What's the mission of the MLG?
    Conduct combat (Direct Support) logistics operations ISO III Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) and attached/assigned forces in order to support and conduct combat operations and sustain warfighting effectiveness. Provide General Support combat logistics to all forces operating in the MEF battle space.
  257. Logistics Combat Element: How is an MLG employed?
    • (1) Centralized ground supply support (beyond organic capabilities);
    • (2) overflow Maintenance support (2.3 echelon);
    • (3) Transportation;
    • (4) General engineering;
    • (5) Health service;
    • (6) Support services (security, postal, disbursing�legal, logistic-related CA support, and graves registration)
  258. Logistics Combat Element: Name the Bns in 3rd MLG:
    CLR 37, 3 (CLB 3/4), 35 (Sup Bn, Maint Bn, 9th ESB), 3rd Med Bn and 3rd dental Bn
  259. Logistics Combat Element: What is CLR 37 composed of?
    HQ, Comm Co, MP Co, Svc Co, Food Service Co, LS/BTO Co, CLB 31 (MEU detachment)
  260. Logistics Combat Element: What is CLR 3 composed of?
    HQ Co, GS MT Co, CLB 3/4
  261. Logistics Combat Element: What is CLB 3/4 composed of?
    HQ Co, Trans Co, Support Co
  262. Logistics Combat Element: What is CLR 35 composed of?
    HQ Co, 3rd Maint Bn, 3rd Supply Bn, 3rd Med Bn, 9th ESB, CLC 36 (Iwakuni)
  263. Logistics Combat Element: What is the LCE of a MEU?
    CLB (31): The LCE consists of detachments from the MLG tailored to provide a full range of logistic support necessary for the MEU(SOC) to accomplish all assigned missions. Command and control support is provided by a detachment from the communications company of the H&S Bn. The detachment provides communications support to the MSSG.
  264. Logistics Combat Element: What is the MLG of a MEB?
    LCE is task-organized around a brigade service support group. This element has engineering, supply, transportation, landing support for beach, port and airfield delivery, medical, and maintenance capabilities
  265. Logistics Combat Element: What are the 6 functional areas of the MLG?
    Supply / Maintenance / Transportation / General engineering / Health services / Services.
  266. Logistics Combat Element: What is War Reserve Material?
    Mission-essential principal end items, secondary items, and munitions required to attain operational objectives in the scenarios authorized in the Defense Planning Guidance.
  267. Logistics Combat Element: When is War Reserve Material acquired?
    During peacetime; to match War Reserve Materiel Requirements (60 days/MEF)
  268. Logistics Combat Element: What does "Maintenance" involve?
    Those actions taken to retain materiel or restore it to serviceable condition
  269. Logistics Combat Element: Discuss the five echelons of maintenance.
    • Echelon 1 and 2 are Organizational (performed by using unit),
    • Echelon 3 and 4 are Intermediate (evac'ed from using unit to CLR 35, priority rules apply).
    • Echelon 5 is depot level maintenance (major overhaul - limited depot on island)
  270. Logistics Combat Element: What are Maintenance Contact teams?
    Conduct recovery, evacuation, and repair. Determine whether an item is reparable at the recovery site. The MCT either fixes the item, requests parts and an intermediate level maintenance support team (MST) from the CSSE, or supervises DRMO.
  271. Logistics Combat Element: What are the three elements of an intermediate maintenance concept?
    The MST, the MLG Forward Maintenance Detachment, and the MLG Intermediate Maintenance Activity (IMA)
  272. Logistics Combat Element: What is the element of a CSSD that operates the maintenance facilities and collection points far forward?
    MLG forward maintenance detachment
  273. Logistics Combat Element: What does the Forward Support Maintenance Detachment do?
    Evacuates inoperable equipment from supported units� collection points. Performs intermediate maintenance within its capabilities. Provides repairmen, tools, and test equipment to maintenance support teams.
  274. Logistics Combat Element: Tell me about the MTVR MK-23/25.
    AKA 7-ton truck (short bed variants). Utilized to transport equipment, material, and/or personnel. Range: 300 miles and can ford 60 inches of water. MK-25 has a 20,000 lb self recovery winch.
  275. Logistics Combat Element: Tell me about the capacity of a 7-ton Truck.
    • 7 ton off-road payload; 15 ton on-road payload.
    • Short Bed: 2 quad-cons (16ft);
    • Extended bed: 3-4 quad-cons (20 feet).
    • Designed to tow Howitzer.
  276. Logistics Combat Element: What does HMMWV stand for?
    • High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle;
    • Baseline is the M998 series:
    • The M998 is an open aluminum body, canvas top, general purpose tactical truck designed for use over all types of roads and in all weather conditions.
    • .
  277. Logistics Combat Element: Tell me about the fast-back HMMWV variants.
    • M998A1/1038A1 Basic armor primary troop/equipment transport;
    • M1025A1/1026A1 M1043A1/1044A1 Armament Carrier vehicles (armor and a weapon mount located on roof - tow variant available);
    • M1109/1114 Up-Armored Armament Carrier (small arms and mine resistant armor)
  278. Logistics Combat Element: Tell me about the high-back HMMWV variants.
    • M1097A1/M1042 higher payload capacity than 998 variants,
    • M996A1/997A1/1035A1 are ambulances:
    • 996 is mini (2 litter/6 ambulatory); 997 (4 litter/8 ambulatory); 1035 is soft-top (2 litter)
  279. Logistics Combat Element: Explain the purpose and characteristics of the High Speed High Mobility Crane.
    • Diesel powered.
    • Lift capability: 50,000 lbs.
    • Capable of operating on rough terrain, beaches, etc.
    • Expensive to fix and not used often.
  280. Logistics Combat Element: Explain the purpose and characteristics of the Logistic Vehicle System.
    • Modular System that combines MK-48 front power unit with one of 5 rear body units;
    • off-road payload = 12.5 tons, on-road payload = 22.5 tons.
  281. Logistics Combat Element: Discuss the rear units of the LVS?
    5 types: MK14,15,16,17,18; flatbeds, wrecker/recovery, cargo stabilization
  282. Logistics Combat Element: Explain the purpose and characteristics of the Extending Boom Forklift (EBFL).
  283. Intended for use as a materials handling forklift.
    • All weather�operational.
    • Can ford in�up�to�30�inches�of�water.
  284. Logistics Combat Element: What is the load capacity of the Truck Forklift Variable Reach?
    • It is able to lift loads of 6,000 lbs to a height of 23 ft. and 4,000 lbs to a height of 26 ft.;
    • Tow vehicles less than 27,100 lbs and reach speeds up to 23 mph.
  285. Logistics Combat Element: What are the 7 components of the Common Sense Approach to Maintenance?
    Responsiveness, Simplicity, Flexibility, Economical, Attainability, Sustainability, and Survivability
  286. Logistics Combat Element: MEF needs 60 Days of Supply: Define DOS
    Combat (Kinetic DOS): Class3 MREs/day, 2 gals/water, ammo rounds
  287. Logistics Combat Element: What is the mission of CLR 37?
    Provide HQ and combat logistics to 3D MLG command; command, control and coordination of logistics services to III MEF forces. Execute Maritime Pre-positioning Force (MPF) operations IOT achieve rapid build-up of combat power. Provide combat logistics to Marine Expeditionary Units and provide terminal operation support to deploying III MEF forces.
  288. Logistics Combat Element: What is the mission of CLR 3?
    provides direct support tactical logistics to 3d Marine Division and its subordinate units in order to prepare for and sustain combat operations. Coordinate surge tactical logistics beyond CLR subordinate units� organic capabilities as required by division�s concept of operations
  289. Logistics Combat Element: What is the mission of CLR 35?
    Conduct GS combat logistics operations for III MEF forces and other units as directed by providing intermediate level supply, maintenance and level II health services support in order to preserve and sustain the ground readiness and combat capability of III MEF forces.
  290. Logistics Combat Element: What is the mission of the 9th ESB?
    To provide general engineering support to Marine Expeditionary Forces encompassing mobility enhancement, including the employment of standard bridging, survivability, explosive ordnance disposal, the provision of tactical utilities support, production and storage of bulk water, and general supply support incident to the handling, storage and distribution of bulk fuel. To be prepared to support missions surpassing the organic engineer capability of the Marine Division and Marine Air Wing
  291. Logistics Combat Element: What is the mission of 3rd Dental Bn?
    Dental Force Health Protection of Marines and Sailors of III MEF, Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley Butler, MCAS Iwakuni, and K-Bay
  292. Logistics Combat Element: Discuss the relationship between LCE and MPF.
    MPF operation is a logistical operation because it involves deployment and preparation of the MAGTF for employment.
  293. Logistics Combat Element: What is the goal of MPF Logistics Planning?
    • to use existing logistic systems and infrastructure as much as possible.
    • Use host-nation and inter-service support as much as possible.
  294. Logistics Combat Element: What are the facilities requirements for MPF off-load?
    Beaches, ports, arrival and tactical airfields -> assembly areas must be in close proximity; AND able to accommodate MPS and strategic-lift aircraft; have sufficient capacity to handle the MPF off-load, must have all-weather capability. AND MUST BE FRIENDLY (MPS does not pull into hostile territory)
  295. Logistics Combat Element: What are variables LCE must weigh in MPF embark?
    Marshaling/moving to POEs; Coordinating interrelated air and sea movements (arriving and receiving in the AAA); Prep/Distribution maritime pre-positioned equipment and supplies; future tactical operations
  296. Logistics Combat Element: Define SPOE and APOE.
    Sea Port of Embarkation and Aerial Port of Embarkation
  297. Logistics Combat Element: What is an AAA?
    Arrival and Assembly Area: Chosen near SPOD and APOD.
  298. Logistics Combat Element: What is the role of LCE at AAA?
    MLG locks on ports and airports; contract and pay for fields/areas we will use for Host Nation Support (gen. transportation/transition); Marry people up with gear.
  299. Logistics Combat Element: What is the Offload Preparation Party? Where do they fit in Sea Movement Group Elements?
    Task Organized under OPCON in Sea Movement Group - maintenance, embark personnel, and equipment operators; prepare Maritime Prepositioned Equip/Supply for offload at AAA; Try to be aboard the MPSRON on O-day (Offload Day) minus 4 (disestablished on completion of offload prep).
  300. Logistics Combat Element: What is the SLRP? Where do they fit into FIE Organization?
    Task organized under MAGTF and Navy support Element to support Air Movement Group; Survey, Liaison, and Reconnaissance Party: Assess and Report based on number of needed locations.
  301. Logistics Combat Element: What are Movement Control Organizations?
    Alphabet Soup of movement and marshaling supervisory centers. MAGTF Deployment and Distribution Operations Center (MDDOC) - MEF commander�s tracking of stuff; MAGTF Movement Control Center (MMCC) - pick stuff up and move it around during marshalling; Departure Airfield Control Group (DACG) - cargo and personnel are properly prepared for air shipment; Arrival Airfield Control Group (AACG) - flight line -> staging area.
  302. Logistics Combat Element: What is the purpose of Arrival and Assembly Operations Group?
    Coordinate and control AAA Operations; consist of personnel from all MAGTF elements. Subordinate: Arrival and Assembly Operations Elements (AAOE), Airfield Coordination Officer (ACO), Landing Force Support Party (LFSP), Port Operations Group (POG), Beach Operations Group (BOG), Arrival Airfield Control Group (AACG), and Movement Control Center (MCC)
  303. Logistics Combat Element:
  304. Logistics Combat Element:
  305. Logistics Combat Element:
  306. Logistics Combat Element:
  307. Logistics Combat Element:
  308. Logistics Combat Element:
  309. Command Element: What is the purpose of the command element?
    provide the command and control capabilities required for effective planning, direction, and execution of all MAGTF operations. It includes intelligence and communications units that provide general support for the MAGTF. It may also be augmented by organizations which conduct specialized functions not normally found in the active component of the Marine Corps
  310. Command Element: What is the difference between supported and supporting relationships?
    • Normally identified by the MAGTF commander when planning missions for the subordinate elements of the MAGTF.
    • The element of the force making the main effort is designated as the supported element;
    • All other elements support that effort. LCE and ACE generally support mission of GCE.
  311. Command Element: What is ADCON?
    Administrative Control: direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization of Service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management, unit logistics, individual and unit training, readiness, mobilization, demobilization, discipline, and other matters not included in the operational missions of the subordinate or other organizations.
  312. Command Element: What is OPCON?
    Operational Control: authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission
  313. Command Element: What is TACON?
    Tactical Control: command authority over assigned or attached forces or commands, or military capabilities or forces made available for tasking that is limited to the detailed and usually local direction and control of movements or maneuvers necessary to accomplish assigned missions or tasks.
  314. Command Element: What is a Joint Task Force? Who can establish one?
    Established by the Secretary of Defense, a combatant commander, a subordinate unified commander, or an existing JTF commander. A JTF is normally established to accomplish a mission with a specific limited objective and is dissolved when that mission is accomplished. The commander of a JTF exercises OPCON over all assigned forces and, normally, over all attached forces.
  315. Command Element: What is a Combined Joint task force?
    task force which includes elements of more than one service and elements of more than one nation
  316. Command Element: What is a coalition?
    Ad-Hoc: an alliance among individuals or groups, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in his own self-interest, joining forces together for a common cause. This alliance may be temporary or a matter of convenience.�/ A coalition is a collection of countries involved in a military operation who are unified under a single command
  317. Command Element: What elements are organic to the III MEF Command Element?
    III MHG, 7th Comm, 3d Intel, 5th ANGLICO, 3d SOTG, III MEF Band, 3rd Radio Bn
  318. Command Element: What is the purpose of 5th ANGLICO?
    5th Air and Naval Gunfire Liason Company: , provides Marine detachments that are capable of planning and controlling U.S. supporting arms fires for joint and combined forces in the region.
  319. Command Element: What is the purpose of III MEF SOTG?
    Special Operations Training Group: training operations, including JWTC
  320. Command Element: What is the purpose of the III MEF Band?
    Provide musical support to III MEF, III MEF, MSCs, MSEs, and MCB. Build and sustain community relations in III MEF AOR, Rear Area Security
  321. Command Element: What is mission of 3d Radio BN? Where are they based out of?
    mission is to provide tactical signals intelligence (SIGINT), ground-based electronic attack (EA), communications security (COMSEC) monitoring, and special intelligence (SI) communication support to the MAGTF. Based out of Hawaii.
  322. Command Element: What is the mission of 3d Intel Bn? Where are they based out of?
    to organize, train, and equip task organized intelligence detachments for service with MAGTFs or other commanders as directed. Based on Camp Hansen.
  323. Command Element: What is the purpose of the Chaplain? Who is the III MEF Chaplain?
    The III MEF Chaplain is directly responsible to the CG for religious matters, and serves as principal advisor to the CG in religious, moral, and ethical issues affecting III MEF. -->? Ch. Kloak; ?--> Ch. Gordon
  324. Command Element: What is the mission of 7th Comm Bn?
    is to provide communications and information systems support to MARFOR component headquarters and MAGTF CEs.
  325. Command Element: Define "tyranny of distance."
    refers to the heck of a long distance from Okinawa to CONUS; 24 hr. by air, weeks by sea.
  326. Command Element: Discuss the HSV and its employment in III MEF.
    High Speed Vessel: It is capable of carrying 970 Marines, 8 Helicopters, and the rolling stock and supplies that equal (20) C-17 sorties; 33 knots for 1240 nautical miles, can reach most areas within AOR within 5 days. III MEF pioneered its used.
  327. Command Element:
  328. Command Element:
  329. Amphibious Operations: Success of the ship-to-shore movement of the landing force and its essential equipment requires what?
    The closest coordination of naval and landing force elements in the detailed preparatory planning for and the actual execution of the movement.
  330. Amphibious Operations: What is the most critical phase of an amphibious assault?
    Ship to shore movement
  331. Amphibious Operations: Who exercises overall control of ship-to-shore movement?
    Amphibious task force (ATF) commander
  332. Amphibious Operations: The movement from ship to shore involves what elements of the force?
    All elements of the force, either directly or in a support function. Navy + USMC
  333. Amphibious Operations: State the sequence of events for an amphibious operation.
    PERMA: (1) Planning; (2) Embarkation; (3) Rehersal; (4) Movement; (5) Assault
  334. Amphibious Operations: What is the Landing Force Support Party (LFSP)?
    Kind of a big deal: A task organized forward echelon of Combat Landing Force formed to facilitate ship-to-shore movement & composed of the landing force which includes shore party, helicopter support, and Navy elements.
  335. Amphibious Operations: What are the special attachments to the Landing Force Support Party?
    (1) Shore party; (2) Helicopter Support Team; (3) Naval Beach Group (CBs)
  336. Amphibious Operations: What is the shore party?
    A task organization formed and equipped to facilitate landing and movement of waterborne troops, equipment, and supplies and evacuation of selected casualties and prisoners of war (CLR-37 + CLR 3)
  337. Amphibious Operations: What is the helicopter support team?
    This team is a task organization formed; responsibility of ACE Commander; Provides helicopter terminal guidance and arming and refueling to the LFSP
  338. Amphibious Operations: What is the naval beach group?
    Permanently organized command within an amphibious force. Provides Navy elements to the ATF commander and to the LFC in support of an amphibious landing. These Navy elements include beachmaster unit (BMU), CBs, AV operators. may be augmented with elements from the NAVCHAPGRU
  339. Amphibious Operations: What are the types of amphibious operations?
    (1) Feint; (2) Raid; (3) Assault; (4) Demonstration
  340. Amphibious Operations: What is a raid?
    An operation involving a swift incursion into or the temporary occupation of an objective to accomplish an assigned mission followed by a planned withdrawal.
  341. Amphibious Operations: What is a feint?
    Deception: an offensive action involving contact with the adversary, decieve as to the location and/or time of the actual main offensive action: NO SHOOTING, NO BULLETS.
  342. Amphibious Operations: What is an assault?
    Involves the establishment of an LF on a hostile or potentially hostile shore. Forcible entry operations. Techniques: Amphibious, airborne, and/or air assault operations
  343. Amphibious Operations: What is a demonstration?
    Deception: confuse the enemy as to time, place, or strength of the main operation. Influence enemy: try to get them to engage you. "A FEINT WITH BULLETS"
  344. Amphibious Operations: Should any major change become necessary, who is responsible for making and promulgating the change?
    The CATF until the CLF feels that they have suficient combat power ashore and requests permission to assume control
  345. Amphibious Operations: Should a major change may affect the troop scheme of maneuver who must be consulted?
    CLF needs notification; CATF is decisor.
  346. Amphibious Operations: Should the commander landing force desire to make a change in plans which affects the ship-to-shore movement who must he get approval from?
    CATF; who will then promulgate the change to the naval element of the force.
  347. Amphibious Operations: What are the ships that provide naval surface fire support?
    Guided Missile Cruisers (CGs) and Destroyers (DDGs), LCS (Littoral Combat Ship; 12-14 ft draft, 45-50 knots); LHAs (2-54 cal guns)
  348. Amphibious Operations: What is L-hour?
    The time at which the first helicopter of the helicopter-borne assault wave touches down in the landing zone
  349. Amphibious Operations: What is h-hour?
    The time the first assault elements are scheduled to touch down on the beach, or a landing zone, and in some cases the commencement of countermine breaching operations
  350. Amphibious Operations: What is d-day?
    The unnamed day on which a particular operation commences or is to commence
  351. Amphibious Operations: What is the line of departure?
    Point of No-Return, once you cross the line, you are on the attack -- even if it takes days to reach objective. In amphibious warfare, a suitably marked offshore coordinating line to assist assault craft to land on designated beaches at scheduled times
  352. Amphibious Operations: What is the mission of the LCAC?
    To be awesome. Also, to land heavy vehicles, equipment, personnel, and cargo in amphibious assaults.
  353. Amphibious Operations: What is the mission of the LCU?
    3 ft. draft; To land heavy vehicles, equipment, personnel, and cargo in an amphibious assault
  354. Amphibious Operations: What is the mission of the LFSP?
    Facilitate rapid buildup of combat power ashore ensuring organization and uniformity; (1) Provide general LCE to the landing force in the early stages of the assault; (2) Facilitate landing/movement of troops, equipment, and supplies across the beach and/or into landing zones; (3) Assist in evac of the casualties and prisoners of war; (4) Assist follow up on landing ships, craft, and amphibious vehicles.
  355. Amphibious Operations: What is an example of a raid?
    Entebbe/Operation Thunderbolt; Raid on Osama bin Laden's Lair
  356. Amphibious Operations: What is an example of a feint?
    Battle of Carrhae; USMC build up in Kuwait prior to Desert Storm, Army assault
  357. Amphibious Operations: What is an example of an assualt?
    Battle of Okinawa
  358. Amphibious Operations: What is an example of a demonstration?
    E/W Germany prior to the fall of the wall
  359. Amphibious Operations: Tell me about the various classes of Amphibious Ships
    LHA/LHD (Multipurpose, Large-Deck, 1800+ Marines, 30+ Helo); LPD/LSD/LCC (Amphib Transport Dock/Dock Landing Ship; 500/800 Marines; transport and launch Marines); LCC (Command Ship; no embarked Marines)
  360. Amphibious Operations: What is the shore party composed of?
    (1) Shore party HQ; (2) Shore party group; (3) Beach party
  361. Amphibious Operations: What does the shore party HQ provide?
    command, evacuation , MP, communications, and security sections
  362. Amphibious Operations: What does the shore party group provide?
    Responsible for supporting a colored beach over which a regimental landing team (RLT), or an equivalent Army force, lands; Allocating shore party team personnel and equipment, Establishing and Coordinating LFSP communications, Providing liaison personnel, Coordinating defensive measures, Coordinating with the beach party group commander
  363. Amphibious Operations: What is the beach party?
    Naval component of the shore party. It is made up of naval elements predominately from the naval beach group. Small sea-air-land (SEAL) team detachments are usually included for rescue swimmer support
  364. Amphibious Operations: Who task organizes the beach party?
    The CATF
  365. Amphibious Operations:
  366. Amphibious Operations:
  367. Amphibious Operations:
  368. Amphibious Operations:
  369. Force Protection: What does force protection do?
    • Protecting the Force.
    • Reduces risk by detecting adversary actions.
    • Enables us to limit the adverse effects of deception and surprise.
    • Can limit or distort the adversaries assessment of friendly capabilities and intentions.
    • Naval intelligence provides the information needed to conduct successful deception measures against the adversary.
    • Intelligence can reduce the likelihood of fratricide by helping to clear the fog of war.
  370. Force Protection: What is THREATCON?
    THREATCONs describe the progressive level of a terrorist threat to all US military facilities and personnel under DODD 2000.12, �DoD Combating Terrorism Program.�
  371. Force Protection: What is the purpose of the THREATCON system?
    Provide accessibility to, and easy dissemination of, appropriate information.
  372. Force Protection: Once a THREATCON is declared when are the selected security measures implemented?
    Immediately
  373. Force Protection: What is THREATCON Alpha?
    Applies when there is a general threat of possible terrorist activity against personnel and facilities, the nature and extent of which are unpredictable, and circumstances do not justify full implementation of THREATCON BRAVO measures. However, it may be necessary to implement certain measures from higher THREATCONs either resulting from intelligence received or as a deterrent. The measures in this THREATCON must be capable of being maintained indefinitely
  374. Force Protection: What is THREATCON Bravo?
    Applies when an increased and more predictable threat of terrorist activity exists. The measures in this THREATCON must be capable of being maintained for weeks without causing undue hardship, affecting operational capability, and aggravating relations with local authorities.
  375. Force Protection: What is THREATCON Charlie?
    Applies when an incident occurs or intelligence is received indicating that some form of terrorist action against personnel and facilities is imminent. Implementation of measures in this THREATCON for more than a short period probably will create hardship and affect the peacetime activities of the unit and its personnel.
  376. Force Protection: What is THREATCON Delta?
    Applies in the immediate area where a terrorist attack has occurred or when intelligence has been received that terrorist action against a specific location or person is likely. Normally, this THREATCON is declared as a localized condition.
  377. Force Protection: What is deadly force?
    The efforts of an individual used against another to cause death, substantial risk of death, or serious bodily harm
  378. Force Protection: What are the conditions that justify the use of deadly force?
    • Defend yourself
    • Defend property involving national security
    • Defend property not involving national security but inherently dangerous to others
    • Prevent crimes against people
    • Apprehend individuals
    • Establish and/or maintain lawful order
  379. Force Protection: List the force levels, from lowest to highest (deadly force).
    • Verbal persuasion
    • Show of force
    • Unarmed self-defense techniques
    • Chemical aerosol irritant, if available
    • Riot club, if available
    • Working dogs, if available
    • Deadly force
  380. Force Protection: Who has an inherent responsibility for the security of their personnel, equipment, and facilities?
    Commanders
  381. Force Protection: Who are ultimately responsible for the security of their assigned rear areas?
    Component commander and the MAGTF commander
  382. Force Protection: In the rear area, security objectives include what?
    • Preventing or minimizing disruption of support operations.
    • Protecting personnel, supplies, equipment, and facilities.
    • Protecting LOCs.
    • Preventing or minimizing disruption of command and control.
    • Defeating, containing, or neutralizing any threat in the rear area.
  383. Force Protection: What are active security measures?
    Organizing for defensive operations, coordinating reconnaissance and surveillance, providing security to convoys, positioning air defense units in the rear area, establishing liaison with fire support organizations, employing close air support, establishing reaction forces, developing defensive plans and positioning assets in support of them, patrolling, and training in defensive skills.
  384. Force Protection: What are the 2 types of measures commanders enact?
    Active and Inactive
  385. Force Protection: What are passive security measures?
    Camouflage, dispersion, and cover. Security operations in the rear area require detailed planning and aggressive execution.
  386. Force Protection: Name some types of security operations.
    • Populace and resource control operations.
    • Enemy prisoner of war operations.
    • Noncombatant evacuation operations.
    • Civilian control operations.
    • Area damage control operations.
    • Combat operations.
  387. Force Protection: What is THREATCON NORMAL
    Applies when a general global threat of possible terrorist activity exists and warrants a routine security posture.
  388. Force Protection: List the means by which the use of less than deadly force might be utilized.
    Handcuffs, Batons, Military Working Dogs, Show of Force.
  389. Force Protection: How many Threat Condition Levels are there? What are they?
    Normal, Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta
  390. Force Protection: What are the escalation steps of Show of Force?
    Shout, Show, Shove, Shoot.
  391. Force Protection: Define Anti-Terrorism.
    • Antiterrorism (AT) is defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability
    • of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited response and containment by local military and civilian forces.
  392. Force Protection: The times that use of deadly force is authorized
    • Self Defense
    • Defense of Property Important To National Security
    • Defense of Property Inherently Dangerous To Others
    • Defense of Others
    • Apprehend/Arrest Individuals
    • Escapes
    • Lawful Order
  393. Force Protection:
  394. Force Protection:
  395. Force Protection:
  396. Force Protection:
  397. General Combat: When was the Code of Conduct was put into effect?
    After Korea when numerous POWs had collaborated with the enemy
  398. General Combat: How many articles are there in the code of conduct?
    6
  399. General Combat: State the 1st article of the code of conduct.
    Article 1: �I am an American fighting in the armed forces, which guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.�
  400. General Combat: State the 2nd article of the code of conduct.
    Article 2: �I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I will never surrender the members of my command while they still have the means to resist.�
  401. General Combat: State the 3rd article of the code of conduct.
    Article 3: �If I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make every effort to escape and aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy.�
  402. General Combat: State the 4th article of the code of conduct.
    Article 4: �If I become a prisoner of war. I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I will give no information nor take part in any action, which might be very harmful to my comrades. If I am senior, I will take command. If not, I will obey the lawful orders of senior prisoners, regardless of the branch of service (U.S. Or allied nation.)
  403. General Combat: State the 5th article of the code of conduct.
    Article 5: �When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am required to give name, rank, service number and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost of my ability. I will give no oral or written statements disloyal to my country and its allies, or harmful to their cause.�
  404. General Combat: State the 6th article of the code of conduct.
    Article 6: �I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the principles, which made my country free. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America.�
  405. General Combat: What are the four specific items of information marines and sailors are required to give to their captors?
    • Name
    • Rank
    • Service Number (SSN)
    • Date of Birth
  406. General Combat: What are the rights and obligations of Enemy Prisoners of War?
    • Receive sanitary, protective housing and clothing
    • Receive sufficient amount of food to sustain good health
    • Receive adequate medical care
    • Receive necessary facilities for proper hygiene
    • Practice religious faith
    • Keep possessions and personal property except weapons, military equipment, and documents
    • Send and receive mail
    • Receive humane treatment
  407. General Combat: What are the responsibilities of the POW?
    • Provide Name, Rank, Service Number (SSN), Date of Birth
    • Obey lawful rules and regulations
    • Perform (paid) labor, as required; that is, perform (paid) labor that is not military, not degrading, not dangerous, and not unhealthy.
    • Maintain military discipline and courtesy, and render honor to officers
  408. General Combat: State the rights and obligations of Enemy Prisoners of War.
    Right to receive sanitary, protective housing and clothing / Right to receive a sufficient amount of food to sustain good health. / Right to receive adequate medical care. / recieve necessary facilities for proper hygeine / right to practice religious faith / right to keep personal property except weapons, military equipment, and military documents / to send and receive mail / receive packages containing non-contraband items such as food, clothing, educational, religous, and recreational materials / to select a fellow POW to represent you / receive humane treatment / to have a copy of the Geneva Convention and its annexes, including any special agreements, posted where it can be read / right to have a copy of all camp regulations, notices, orders, and pubs about POW conduct posted where it can be read
  409. General Combat: State the procedures for handling Enemy Prisoners of War.
    Humane treatments of Prisoners (including no reprisals) / Respect for the Persons of the Prisoners / Maintenance of Prisoners / Equality of Treatment
  410. General Combat:
  411. General Combat:
  412. General Combat:
  413. USMC Operations: What are the principles of operational maneuver from the sea?
    Principles of Operational Maneuver from the Sea focuses on an operational objective. / Principles of Operational Maneuver from the Sea uses the sea as maneuvering space. / Principles of Operational Maneuver from the Sea generates overwhelming tempo and momentum. / Principles of Operational Maneuver from the Sea pits strength against weakness. / Principles of Operational Maneuver from the Sea emphasizes intelligence, deceptions, and flexibility. / Principles of Operational Maneuver from the Sea integrates all organic, joint, and combined assets
  414. USMC Operations: What is the main purpose of Humanitarian assistance?
    Provide a secure environment to allow humanitarian relief efforts to progress. As such, HA missions for US military may cover a broad range of taskings. In every case, the specific requirements placed on US soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen will be situation dependent. HA means vastly different things to different people, based on their specific perspective. HA operations can encompass both reactive programs, such as disaster relief, and proactive programs, such as humanitarian and civic assistance (HCA) or civil support.
  415. USMC Operations: What are the 2 types of humanitarian assistance?
    Proactive and reactive
  416. USMC Operations: What is Humanitarian Assistance governed by?
    Governed by Title 10, US Code, Section 401, which states that HCA�(1) Must be carried out in conjunction with host nation military and/or civilian personnel (2) Shall complement and may not duplicate any other form of social or economic assistance provided to the host nation by another department or agency of the US / May not be provided directly or indirectly to any individual, group, or organization engaged in military or paramilitary activity: (1) May not be provided unless the Department of State (DOS) specifically approves such assistance.
  417. USMC Operations: List some examples of MOOTW
    Noncombatant evacuation operations (NEO). / Strikes and raids. / Arms control, enforcement of exclusion zones, peacekeeping, and peace enforcement. / Nation assistance. / Protection of shipping / Humanitarian assistance
  418. USMC Operations: What is MOUT?
    Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT), provides doctrinal guidance and detailed information on tactics, techniques, and procedures to be employed in MOUT within the operating forces
  419. USMC Operations: What does ROE do?
    Minimizing civilian casualties and/or collateral destruction / Limiting the use of specific ground or air weapons
  420. USMC Operations: Why minimize collateral destruction?
    Avoiding alienation of the local population / Reducing the risk of adverse world or domestic opinion / Preserving facilities for future use / Preserving cultural facilities and grounds
  421. USMC Operations: What is MCPP?
    Marine Corps Planning Process. a responsive and flexible process that can adapt to the needs of any size unit and adjust to any timetable. The Marine Corps planning process embodies our maneuver warfare doctrine with its tenets of top-down planning, single-battle concept, and integrated planning in order to generate and maintain tempo.
  422. USMC Operations: What are the steps in the MCPP process?
    Mission Analysis / COA Development / COA War Game / COA Comparision & Decision / Order Development / Transition
  423. USMC Operations: What is CONPLAN?
    An operation plan in concept format. / An operation plan in an abbreviated format that would require considerable expansion or alteration to convert it into an OPLAN or OPORD. A CONPLAN contains the CINC�s Strategic Concept and those annexes and appendixes deemed necessary by the combatant commander to complete planning. Generally, detailed support requirements are not calculated and TPFDD files are not prepared
  424. USMC Operations: What is OPLAN?
    Any plan, except for the Single Integrated Operation Plan, for the conduct of military operations. Plans are prepared by combatant commanders in response to requirements established by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and by commanders of subordinate commands in response to requirements tasked by the establishing unified commander. Operation plans are prepared in either a complete format (OPLAN) or as a concept plan (CONPLAN)
  425. USMC Operations: What is FUNCPLAN?
    Involve the conduct of military operations in a peacetime or permissive environment. These plans are traditionally developed for specific functions or discrete tasks (e.g., nuclear weapon recovery or evacuation, logistics, communications, or continuity of operations) but may be developed to address functional peacetime operations such as disaster relief, humanitarian assistance, peacekeeping, or counterdrug operations. Functional plans will be written using the JOPES procedures and formats specified for a CONPLAN (without a TPFDD)
  426. USMC Operations: What is TPFDD?
    The Portion of an Operation Plan (OPLAN) that contains time-phased force data, non-unit related cargo and personnel data, and movement data for the OPLAN
  427. USMC Operations:
  428. USMC Operations:
  429. USMC Operations:
  430. Environmental Awareness: What is HAZMAT?
    Flashpoint below 200F (93.3C), or is subject to spontaneous heating or is subject to polymerization with release of large amounts of energy when handled, stored, and shipped without adequate control. / Threshold limit value below 1000 ppm for gases and vapors, below 500 mg/m3 for fumes, and below 30 mppcf for dusts. / Single oral dose which will cause 50 percent fatalities to test animals when administered in doses of less than 500 mg per kilogram of test animal weight. / Strong oxidizing or reducing agent. / Causes first degree burns to skin in short time exposure or is systematically toxic by skin contact. / In the course of normal operations, may produce dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, mists, or smokes with one or more of the above characteristics. / Produces sensitizing or irritating effects. / Radioactive. / Has special characteristics which in the opinion of the manufacturer could cause harm to personnel if used or stored improperly.
  431. Environmental Awareness: What is HAZWASTE?
    Any discarded or abandoned hazardous substance as defined in 40 CFR 261. It may include any discarded liquid, semisolid, solid, or containerized gaseous material
  432. Environmental Awareness: What is MSDS?
    Material Safety Data Sheet. OSHA Form 174 or an equivalent form containing the identical data elements, must be used by manufacturers of chemical products to communicate to users the chemical, physical, and hazardous properties of their product to comply with the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200.
  433. Environmental Awareness: What is AUL?
    Authorized Use List. All HM allowed for use in the activity.
  434. Environmental Awareness: Explain the general procedures to be followed when a HAZMAT spill is discovered
    Discovery and Notification. / Initiation of Action. / Evaluation. / Containment and Damage Control. / Dispersion of Gases/Vapors. / Cleanup and Decontamination. / Disposal of Contaminated Materials. / Certification for Re-entry. / Follow-up Reports
  435. Environmental Awareness: State the PPE required when handling HAZMAT/HAZWASTE
    Try to eliminate or minimize hazard exposure in the workplace. To that end, all hazards are different and require different PPE - MSDS states required PPE for hazards.
  436. Environmental Awareness: PPE approval can be met through the use of what?
    Federal specifications: American National Standards Institute (ANSI) specifications � Recognized approval authority, such as Underwriter's Laboratories (UL), Factory Mutual (FM), or American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM).
  437. Environmental Awareness: What is a Threshold Limit Value?
    The amount of gas, vapors fumes, or dust within the environment to be considered safe.
  438. Environmental Awareness: What does the AUL reduce?
    It reduces HAZWASTE. Only keep the stuff that we have on AUL on hand, no waste of other HAZMAT
  439. Environmental Awareness: Upon discovery of a spill, to whom should these spills be reported?
    Supervisory Personnel and Officer of the Deck/Command Duty Officer
  440. Environmental Awareness: What personnel are available to assess HAZMAT risk?
    Industrial Hygenist (Nav Hosp)
  441. Environmental Awareness: What is specific gravity?
    Lighter or Heavier than water. if it floats on water, it tends to be more volatile
  442. Environmental Awareness: What is a flashpoint
    Temperature at which a liquid will support combustion; low flashpoint = quick to evaporate, quick to pollute, quik to fire
  443. Environmental Awareness: Okinawa - what is an added stressor on HAZMAT cleanup in Okinawa?
    HAZMAT spills in Motor-T get complicated by rain washing it away before treated with pads.
  444. Environmental Awareness: Okinawa - what additional oversight is placed on HAZMAT in Japan?
    All environmental SOPs are written to comply with the Japanese Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS).
  445. Environmental Awareness:
  446. Environmental Awareness:
  447. Environmental Awareness:
  448. Environmental Awareness:
  449. Communications: What is the range for HF?
    2-29.9
  450. Communications: What does HF stand for?
    High Frequency
  451. Communications: What radios use HF?
    PRC-150 / MRC-148
  452. Communications: What's the typical application for HF?
    Radio line of sight & beyond/long range
  453. Communications: What does VHF stand for?
    Very high frequency
  454. Communications: What is the operating frequency range for VHF?
    30-88MHz and 116-150MHZ
  455. Communications: What radios use VHF?
    PRC 150 / PRC 152 / VRC 110 / MRC 148 / PRC 117 / PRC 119 / VRC 110 / PRC 148 / An/PRQ-7 /
  456. Communications: What is the operating frequency range for UHF?
    225-400MHz
  457. Communications: What does UHF stand for?
    Ultra high frequency
  458. Communications: What radios use UHF?
    PRC-117 / PRC-152 / VRC 110 / PRC 148 / PRC 153 / AN/PRQ-7
  459. Communications: What is the typical application for VHF?
    30-88 Radio line of sight & relay/transmission; 116-150 Critical line of sight
  460. Communications: What is the typical application for UHF?
    Critical line of sight AND SATCOM footprint
  461. Communications: What are the modes that SINCGARS radios offer to commanders?
    SC plain text (PT), SC CT, FH PT, and FH CT.
  462. Communications: When establishing CNR nets what must commanders consider?
    The mission, availability, and capabilities of CNR communications equipment, electronic attack (EA) capabilities of adversary forces, and United States (US) national security policy. SC PT operations provide ease of operation while providing little or no security or protection. FH CT operations provide message traffic security and EA (jamming and direction finding [DF]) resistant transmissions. FH CT communication protects both the message and the sender
  463. Communications: SINCGARS radios can store what?
    SC frequencies and offsets
  464. Communications: How are SC frequencies and offsets entered?
    Manually through the radio�s front panel keypad.
  465. Communications: When operating in the FH mode, two of the SC presets are reserved for what?
    the manual and cue channels
  466. Communications: SINCGARS radios require what four data elements to communicate in the FH mode?
    hopsets/lockouts, net identifiers (IDs), net sync date/time, and TSK
  467. Communications: What are hopsets and lockouts?
    Hopset is the set of frequencies (2320 frequencies minus protected frequencies) on which an FH net hops. Hopsets are electronically loaded and stored in the radio. SINCGARS radios have the capability of storing a unique hopset in each preset FH channel. Lockouts provide frequency exclusions in conjunction with a hopset.
  468. Communications: What is a net id?
    A 3-digit number from 000 to 999 that distinguishes one FH net from another when all other FH data elements are the same. Unique net Ids may be stored in each FH preset channel.
  469. Communications: Net IDs, embedded in the hopset data, are loaded how?
    With a fill device or by ERF and may be changed using the keypad on the front panel of the SINCGARS receiver-transmitter (except on ARC-210 radios).
  470. Communications: What is sync time?
    Sync time is required for synchronization of the frequency hops. Sync time consists of the last 2 digits of the Julian date (SINCGARS Julian date) plus a 6-digit time (hours:minutes:seconds). Each station in the FH radio net must be within (+/- 4 seconds) of the net sync time to communicate
  471. Communications: What is the TSK?
    a generated variable that controls the pseudo-random FH pattern. A TSK must be loaded into the SINCGARS radio prior to opening an FH net. TSKs are electronically loaded into the radio with a fill device and, after net opening, TSK may be transferred by ERF
  472. Communications: What is the Frequency Hopping-Master (FH-M) Mode?
    Only one radio in each FH radio net will use this mode. The FH-M radio maintains the radio net�s sync time and transmits the ERF. Normally the designated NCS or alternate NCS will operate in the FH-M mode
  473. Communications: CT operations require what?
    a traffic encryption key (TEK). A key encryption key (KEK) is required for over the-air rekey (OTAR). TEK and KEK are electronically loaded and stored in the radio or external security equipment.
  474. Communications: The TEK is used in what kind of operation & to do what?
    CT operation and encrypts/decrypts operational voice and digital data transmissions.
  475. Communications: What does KEK do?
    encrypts/decrypts TEKs and is used for OTAR of TEKs. f. PT Operation. SINCGARS radios are also capable of PT operation (either SC or FH). When operating with radios that do not have a CT capability and/or are operating in PT, an army ground SINCGARS radio in the CT mode can monitor PT communications. A beep tone informs the SINCGARS operator that the incoming message is in PT rather than CT.
  476. Communications: What are the three levels of security classification?
    Top Secret / Secret / Confidential
  477. Communications: What does SINCGARS stand for?
    Single channel ground and airborne radio system
  478. Communications: What does SINCGARS stand for?
    Single channel ground and airborne radio system
  479. Communications:
  480. Communications:
  481. Communications:
  482. Communications:
  483. Weapons: Give the characteristics of the M16.
    Lightweight * Air-cooled * Gas-operated * Magazine-fed * Shoulder or hip fired * Fully adjustable rear sight * Automatic fire (3 round bursts) * Semi-automatic fire (single shot) * Length: 39.63 inches * Weight, with 30 round magazine: 8.79 pounds * Bore diameter: 5.56mm
  484. Weapons: What is the maximum effective range of the M16?
    Area Target 800 meters; Point Target 550 meters
  485. Weapons: What is the magazine capacity for the M16?
    30
  486. Weapons: What is the magazine capacity for the M9?
    15
  487. Weapons: hat are the weapon safety rules?
    Treat every weapon as if it were loaded. * Never point a weapon at anything you do not intend to shoot. * Keep finger straight and off trigger until ready to fire. * Keep weapon on SAFE until you intend to fire
  488. Weapons: Talk to me about M16 in conditions 4 -> 1.
    All: Weapon on Safe, Ejection port cover closed; 4 - no magazine; 3 - magazine in, bolt forward on empty chamber; 2 - N/A; 1 - magazine in, bolt forward on round in chamber
  489. Weapons: What is the extractor/loaded chamber indicator for the M9?
    When there is a cartridge in the chamber, the upper surface of the extractor protrudes from the right side of the slide. Indicates weapon in condition 1.
  490. Weapons: What is the decocking/safety lever on the M9?
    Allows safe operation of the pistol by both right and left. handed users, and lowers the hammer without causing an accidental discharge. When hammer is cocked, it may be safely lowered by moving the decocking/safety lever to the safe (down) position
  491. Weapons: Discuss the fieldstrip and reassemble procedures for the M9 service pistol
    (1) Clear/unload the pistol; (2) Allow slide to return fully forward; (3) Hold pistol in the right hand with muzzle slightly elevated. With forefinger press disassembly lever release button end with thumb rotate disassembly lever downward until it stops; (4) Pull the slide end barrel assembly forward and remove; (5) Slightly compress recoil spring end spring guide, while at the same time lifting and removing recoil spring end spring guide. Allow the recoil spring to stretch slowly; (6) Separate recoil spring from spring guide; (7) Push in on locking block plunger while pushing barrel forward slightly. Lift and remove locking block and barrel assembly from slide; (8) Unload the magazine; (9) Grasp the magazine firmly with the floorplate up and the back of the magazine tube against the palm of your hand; (10) Release the floorplate; (11) While maintaining the magazine spring pressure with the thumb, remove the floorplate; (12) Remove the floorplate retainer and magazine spring and follower from the magazine tube Remove floorplate retainer from the magazine spring
  492. Weapons: Is disassembly of the M9 pistol beyond field strip (operator) level authorized?
    No
  493. Weapons: What is immediate action?
    Immediate action is an unhesitating response to a stoppage without investigating the cause
  494. Weapons: What do you do for immediate action to clear a stoppage for the M9?
    TAP: Slap the bottom of the magazine. / RACK: Pull the slide to the rear and release. / BANG: Sight and fire
  495. Weapons:
  496. Weapons:
  497. Weapons:
  498. Weapons:
  499. Weapons:
  500. Weapons:
  501. Tactical Measures: What is CAMOUFLAGE?
    Camouflage is anything that you can use to keep yourself, your equipment and your position from looking like what they really are. They can be both natural and man-made materials.
  502. Tactical Measures: What is COVER?
    Cover is anything that gives protection from bullets, fragments of exploding rounds, flame, nuclear effects, and biological and chemical agents. Cover can also conceal you from enemy observation. It can also be natural or man-made.
  503. Tactical Measures: What is CONCEALMENT?
    Concealment is anything that hides you from enemy observation. Unlike Cover, Concealment does not protect you from enemy fire
  504. Tactical Measures: Discuss the five components of a paragraphs operations order.
    S---Situation / M---Mission / E---Execution / A---Administrative and logistics / C---Command and signals
  505. Tactical Measures: In a paragraph operations order (SMEAC): What goes under situation?
    Enemy Forces � Consists of the composition, disposition, location, movement, capabilities, and recent activities of enemy forces. / Friendly Forces � A statement of the mission of the next higher unit, location and mission of adjacent units, and the commander�s intent from two levels higher. / Attachments and Detachments � Units attached to or detached from the squad by higher headquarters, including the effective time of the attachment or detachment.
  506. Tactical Measures: In a paragraph operations order (SMEAC): What goes under mission?
    A clear, concise statement of the task the squad must accomplish
  507. Tactical Measures: In a paragraph operations order (SMEAC): What goes under execution?
    Concept of Operations � The concept of operation is the squad leader�s brief summary of the tactical plan the squad is to execute the commander�s intent. / Subordinate Tasks (Missions) � In in each succeeding paragraph missions are assigned to each fire team and any attached units. / Coordinating Instructions: (1) Actions at the objective (2) Routes to and from the objective (3) Formations and order for movement (4) Time of attack (5) The fire support plan (naval gunfire, artillery, mortars, air support) / Locations of tactical control measures.
  508. Tactical Measures: In a paragraph operations order (SMEAC): What goes under administration and logistics?
    The paragraph contains information or instructions pertaining to rations and ammunition; location of the distribution point, corpsman, and aid station; the handling of prisoners of war; and other administrative and supply matters.
  509. Tactical Measures: In a paragraph operations order (SMEAC): What goes under command and signals?
    Special instruction on communications, including prearranged signals, password and countersign, radio call signs and frequencies, emergency signals, radio procedures, pyrotechnics, and restrictions on the use of communications / Locations of the platoon commander, the platoon sergeant, and the squad leader
  510. Tactical Measures: What is a SALUTE report?
    Size, Activity, Location, Unit, Time, Equipment
  511. Tactical Measures: In SALUTE Reports, what are you observing for S?
    Size: Observe the size of the aggressor unit: (1) Record the number of personnel. (2) Record the number of vehicles.
  512. Tactical Measures: In SALUTE Reports, what are you observing for A?
    Activity: Observe the activity of the aggressor unit. Record what the enemy is doing.
  513. Tactical Measures: In SALUTE Reports, what are you observing for L?
    Location: Determine the location of the aggressor unit. (1) Give grid coordinates (at least 6 digits). (2) Refer to the location from known point. - Include distance and direction (or azimuth) from known point.
  514. Tactical Measures: In SALUTE Reports, what are you observing for U?
    Unit: Determine the types of aggressor unit. (1) Describe patches. (2) Describe clothing. (3) Describe distinctive signs or symbols. (4) Describe identification numbers on vehicles.
  515. Tactical Measures: In SALUTE Reports, what are you observing for T?
    Time: Note the time of sighting the aggressor unit.
  516. Tactical Measures: In SALUTE Reports, what are you observing for E?
    Equipment: Determine the type of equipment that the aggressor unit has available. (1) Describe small arms. (2) Describe automatic weapons. (3) Describe indirect support weapons. (4) Describe direct support weapons. (5) Describe armored vehicles. (6) Describe personnel carriers. (7) Describe NBC equipment.
  517. Tactical Measures: What is the criteria for selecting a helicopter landing zone.
    Appropriate size for type aircraft. / Day or Night Landing / Add 100 feet over main rotor width for daytime landing and 150 feet for nighttime landing. / Ground condition � stability, slopes, and obstacles / Security
  518. Tactical Measures:
  519. Tactical Measures:
  520. Tactical Measures:
  521. Tactical Measures:
  522. Land Navigation: Name the 12 parts of a compass.
    Luminous Sighting Dots / Sighting Wire / Luminous Magnetic Arrow / Short Luminous Line / Fixed Index Line / Graduated Straight Edge / Sighting Slot / Lens / Thumb Loop / Floating Dial / Bezel Ring / Lens or Rear Sight
  523. Land Navigation: What does the color red identify on the map?
    Classifies cultural features, such as populated areas, main roads, and boundaries, on older maps.
  524. Land Navigation: What does the color blue identify on the map?
    Identifies hydrography or water features such as lakes, swamps, rivers, and drainage
  525. Land Navigation: What does the color black identify on the map?
    Indicates cultural (man�made) features such as buildings and roads, surveyed spot elevations, and all labels
  526. Land Navigation: What does the color brown identify on the map?
    Identifies all relief features and elevation, such as contours on older edition maps, and cultivated land on red-light readable maps
  527. Land Navigation: What is a hill?
    An area of high ground. From a hilltop, the ground slopes down in all directions. A hill is shown on a map by contour lines forming concentric circles. The inside of the smallest closed circle is the hilltop
  528. Land Navigation: What is a saddle?
    A dip or low point between two areas of higher ground. A saddle is not necessarily the lower ground between two hilltops; it may be simply a dip or break along a level ridge crest. If you are in a saddle, there is high ground in two opposite directions and lower ground in the other two directions. A saddle is normally represented as an hourglass
  529. Land Navigation: What is a ridge?
    A sloping line of high ground. If you are standing on the centerline of a ridge, you will normally have low ground in three directions and high ground in one direction with varying degrees of slope. If you cross a ridge at right angles, you will climb steeply to the crest and then descend steeply to the base. When you move along the path of the ridge, depending on the geographic location, there may be either an almost unnoticeable slope or a very obvious incline. Contour lines forming a ridge tend to be U-shaped or V-shaped. The closed end of the contour line points away from high ground
  530. Land Navigation: What is a depression?
    A low point in the ground or a sinkhole. It could be described as an area of low ground surrounded by higher ground in all directions, or simply a hole in the ground. Usually only depressions that are equal to or greater than the contour interval will be shown. On maps, depressions are represented by closed contour lines that have tick marks pointing toward low ground
  531. Land Navigation: What is a draw?
    A less developed stream course than a valley. In a draw, there is essentially no level ground and, therefore, little or no maneuver room within its confines. If you are standing in a draw, the ground slopes upward in three directions and downward in the other direction. A draw could be considered as the initial formation of a valley. The contour lines depicting a draw are U-shaped or V-shaped, pointing toward high ground
  532. Land Navigation: What is a finger (spur)?
    A short, continuous sloping line of higher ground, normally jutting out from the side of a ridge. A spur is often formed by two rough parallel streams, which cut draws down the side of a ridge. The ground sloped down in three directions and up in one direction. Contour lines on a map depict a spur with the U or V pointing away from high ground
  533. Land Navigation: What is true north?
    A line from any point on the earth's surface to the north pole. All lines of longitude are true north lines. True north is usually represented by a star
  534. Land Navigation: What is magnetic north?
    The direction to the north magnetic pole, as indicated by the north-seeking needle of a magnetic instrument. The magnetic north is usually symbolized by a line ending with half of an arrowhead . Magnetic readings are obtained with magnetic instruments, such as lensatic and M2 compasses.
  535. Land Navigation: What is grid north?
    The north that is established by using the vertical grid lines on the map. Grid north may be symbolized by the letters GN or the letter "y".
  536. Land Navigation: What is a grid azimuth?
    When an azimuth is plotted on a map between point A (starting point) and point B (ending point), the points are joined together by a straight line. A protractor is used to measure the angle between grid north and the drawn line, and this measured azimuth is the grid azimuth
  537. Land Navigation: What is a back azimuth?
    The opposite direction of an azimuth. It is comparable to doing "about face." To obtain a back azimuth from an azimuth, add 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or less, or subtract 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or more
  538. Land Navigation: What is intersection?
    The location of an unknown point by successively occupying at least two (preferably three) known positions on the ground and then map sighting on the unknown location. It is used to locate distant or inaccessible points or objects such as enemy targets and danger areas
  539. Land Navigation: What are the 2 ways to perform intersection?
    The map and compass method and the straightedge method
  540. Land Navigation: What is the drawing on the map used to convert grid north to magnetic grid?
    Declination diagram
  541. Land Navigation: Describe how to do map and compass intersection?
    (1) Orient the map using the compass. / (2) Locate and mark your position on the map, / (3) Determine the magnetic azimuth to the unknown position using the compass. / (4) Convert the magnetic azimuth to grid azimuth. / (5) Draw a line on the map from your position on this grid azimuth. / (6) Move to a second known point and repeat steps 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. / (7) The location of the unknown position is where the lines cross on the map. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy.
  542. Land Navigation: What is resection?
    Method of locating one's position on a map by determining the grid azimuth to at least two well-defined locations that can be pinpointed on the map. For greater accuracy, the desired method of resection would be to use three or more well-defined locations.
  543. Land Navigation: Describe how to do resection with map & compass.
    (1) Orient the map using the compass. / (2) Identify two or three known distant locations on the ground and mark them on the map. / (3) Measure the magnetic azimuth to one of the known positions from your location using a compass. / (4) Convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth. / (5) Convert the grid azimuth to a back azimuth. Using a protractor, draw a line for the back azimuth on the map from the known position back toward your unknown position. / (6) Repeat 3, 4, and 5 for a second position and a third position, if desired. / (7) The intersection of the lines is your location. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy
  544. Land Navigation: What are the 2 methods to do resection?
    map & compass / straightedge method
  545. Land Navigation:
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