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What are the three main structures within the thorax? (3)
- The mediastinum
- The Right pleural cavity
- The left pleural cavity
What structures are contained within the mediastinum? (5)
- The heart
- The arch of aorta
- The superior vena cava
- lower esophagus
- lower part of the trachea
The right lung has ____ lobes and the left lung has ____ lobes.
- right lung has 3 lobes
- left lung has 2 lobes
Each lung extends anteriorly about _____ inches above the ____ rib into the base of the neck in adults.
Posteriorly, the lungs' apices rise to about the level of ____, which is what?
- The first thoracic vertebra
The lower borders of the lung expand down to _____ on inspiration and on expiration, rise to about ____.
Which ribs are the "floating ribs"? Why are they called this?
- The 11th and 12th ribs
- They are unattached anteriorly
The tips of the 11th rib are located in the _____ and those of the 12th ribs are located in the _____.
- lateral thorax
- posterior thorax
The sternum is about _____ inches long and includes what 3 components?
- 7 inches
- the manubruim
- the body
- the xiphoid process
The _____ is the area between the ribs. How is it named?
- Intercostal space
- According to the rib immediately above it
What are the primary muscles of inspiration?
- The diaphragm
- The intercostal muscles
During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and pushes abdominal contents down while the intercostal muscles help to push the chest wall inward. These combined efforts _____ intrathoracic pressure, which accomplishes what?
- creates a negative pressure within the lungs compared with the pressure outside the lungs, and thus causes the lungs to fill with air.
During expiration, the muscles relax, expelling the air as the intrathoracic pressure ____.
Name the accessory muscles that may anteriorly contribute to respiratory effort. (5)
- pectoralis minor
- serratus anterior
- rectus abdominus
Name the accessory muscles that may posteriorly contribute to respiratory effort. (3)
- serratus posterior superior
- transverse thoracic
- serratus posterior inferior
What structures make up the upper airway?
- intrathoracic trachea
What is the function of the upper airway?
- To conduct air to the lower airway
- To protect lower airway from foreign matter
- To warm, filter, and humidify inspired air
At about what spinal landmark does the trachea divide into the left and the right main stem bronchi?
T4 and T5
What structures make up the lower airway? (5)
- right and left main stem bronchi
- segmental bronchi
- subsegmental bronchi
- terminal bronchioles
Name the topographical markers of the anterior chest wall (7).
- Suprasternal notch
- manubriosternal junction
- midsternal line
- costal angle
- midclavicular lines
What are the topographic markers of the lateral chest wall? (3)
- anterior axillary lines
- posterior axillary lines
- mid-axillary lines
Name the topographical markers of the posterior chest wall.
- Vertebra prominens (spinous process of C7)
- Vertebral line
- Scapular lines