Anthropology 1200

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Ashleyhigginbottom
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15789
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Anthropology 1200
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2010-04-22 23:18:54
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anthropology
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Final Exam
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  1. Religion
    Religion is the belief or ritual that is concerned with supernatural beings.
  2. 10 Components of the Function of Religion
    • 1. Gives a framework for maintaining social order and providing unity within a community.
    • 2. Religion defines the structure of the universe and the relation of man and society to the universe.
    • 3. Provides behavior guidelines and values.
    • 4. Provides motivation.
    • 5. Provides relief from stress and anxiety.
    • 6. Provides social rules and political order.
    • 7. Provides resolution of conflict.
    • 8. Provides justice and the enforcement of law.
    • 9. Used for the justification of political policy.
    • 10. Is the vital part in healing and health.
  3. Common Concepts in Religion
    • 1. Pilgrimage- a journey back to the beginning to find God's heart.
    • 2. Mana- notion that there is spiritual power in people, places, and things.
    • 3. Celebacy- abstaining from sex.
    • 4. Witches- people who have supernatural power.
    • 5. Self Mutilation & Purification Through Pain & Suffering- done to have a vision of what God sees.
    • 6. Cannabalism- eating people is not for a meal but to get something they think the other person possesses.
  4. Ritual Components
    • 1. Ritual acts to unite a community.
    • 2. Portrays or acts out an important aspect of myth.
    • 3. To influence the spiritual world to benefit the practitioner.
  5. Ritual Phases
    • 1. Separation
    • 2. Communits
    • 3. Reintegration
  6. Magic Types
    • Coersive- voodoo dolls
    • Contagious- voodoo dolls with hair
  7. Religion Practitioners
    • 1. Shaman
    • 2. Sorceror
    • 3. Witch
    • 4. Priest
  8. Myths of Religion
    • 1. Origin of the universe.
    • 2. History of the God.
    • 3. Origin of man and animals.
    • 4. Myth & origin of man & afterlife.
  9. How Religion Changes
    • 1. Syncretism- blending of religious beliefs through contact of other cultures.
    • 2. Internal Shifting- religious beliefs shift in relation to society.
    • 3. Revitalization Movements- take place in times of economic stress when groups feel socially isolated and when there is an extreme difference in poor and rich people.
  10. Descent Groups
    • Permanent
    • Ascribed (given to you)
  11. Nuclear Family
    • Temporary
    • Divorce and Remarriage
  12. Functions of Marriage
    • 1. Marriage establishes the legal father and mother of children.
    • 2. Gives the husband and wife mutual monopoly on sexuality.
    • 3. Mutual rights to labor.
    • 4. Provides for rights over property.
    • 5. Provides for a join fund of property for children.
    • 6. Creates relationships to relatives.
    • 7. Determines property transfer at death.
  13. Types of Marriage
    • 1. Polygyny- more than one wife.
    • 2. Polyandry- more than one husband.
    • 3. Serial Monogamy- one wife at a time but several wives over a lifetime.
  14. Two Common Rules Associated with Marriage
    • 1. Sororate- a rule of sister substitute.
    • 2. Levirate- a rule of brother substitute.
  15. Economic Exchanges in Marriage
    • 1. General Exchange- give group A a wife from group B and group B a wife from group A.
    • 2. Bride Price- gift exchange.
    • 3. Dowry- wife's family gives her something of value to take with her into the marriage.
  16. Exogamy
    Exogamy is marriage outside of a given group.
  17. Ways of Measuring Descent
    • 1. Patrilineal- measured through the male's family line.
    • 2. Matrilineal- measured through the female's family line.
    • 3. Bilateral- measured through both male and female family lines,
  18. Types of Descent Groups
    • 1. Lineages- groups of kin who trace descent from common ancestor.
    • 2. Clan- groups that trace ancestory to a mythological figure.
    • 3. Phratry- groups of clans that may have fictious but functional relationships.
    • 4. Moiety- two clans with reciprical relationships that are often ceremonial, religious, political, or involve marriage partner selection.
  19. Code of Ethics
    There is a responsibility to...
    • 1. Those studied.
    • 2. The general public.
    • 3. The discipline of anthropology.
    • 4. To students.
    • 5. To sponsors.
    • 6. To one's own and/or host government.
  20. Four Roles in Problem Solving (Applied Anthropology)
    • 1. Research- understand the problem with intent to intervene.
    • 2. Policy & Program Design- what is exceptable or unexceptable and find a way to intervene.
    • 3. Implementation- taking action/intervene.
    • 4. Evaluation- making sure things being done are working.
  21. Fields of Anthropology
    • 1. Salvage Anthropology- saving important information before it is destroyed.
    • 2. Education- learn from other cultures.
    • 3. Urban Anthropology- Changes for the good.
    • 4. Medical Anthropology- healthcare systems and delivery.
    • 5. Social Work, Business, & Media.
  22. Trends in Development
    • 1. Syphoning- taking wealth from the peasants to give to the elite.
    • 2. Migration
  23. Components & Reasons for Migration
    • 1. People that migrate are separated from their family.
    • 2. Lowest minority status.
    • 3. Environmental Degradation
    • 4. Global Warming
    • 5. Population Growth
    • 6. Species Distinction
    • 7. Run out of resources.
    • 8. Employment Shifting.
  24. Development Solutions
    • 1. Green Revolution
    • 2. Trackers
  25. Sisal
    Sisal is a plant that is turned into fiber.
  26. Development
    Development is planned change with an intervention policy.
  27. Rules of Development Failure
    • 1. Overinvention
    • 2. Projects that result in a radical shift in lifestyle.
    • 3. Projects that require a shift from subsistance agriculture to 100% cash crop.
    • 4. Underdiffereniation
  28. Indicators of Successful Development
    • 1. Culturally Compatable.
    • 2. Development that responds to locally perceived needs for change.
    • 3. Should harness traditional organizations.
    • 4. Has a proper and flexible social design for project implementation.
  29. Five Issues of Benefit of Development
    • 1. Balance
    • 2. Equitable
    • 3. Sustainable
    • 4. Feasible
    • 5. Scale
  30. Community Development Corporation (CDC) Charateristics
    • 1. Evolved from the notion that the community should be involved.
    • 2. Undertake projects that involve construction or renovation.
    • 3. Located in specific geographic neighborhoods.
    • 4. All non-profit organizations.
  31. Three Types of Money Available to Non-Profit Organizations with 501.C.3
    • 1. Private
    • 2. Government
    • 3. Philanthropic
  32. Federal Legislation for CDC
    • 1. CRA
    • 2. LIHTC
    • 3. Homepartnerships
    • 4. State HFA

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