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Religion is the belief or ritual that is concerned with supernatural beings.
10 Components of the Function of Religion
1. Gives a framework for maintaining social order and providing unity within a community.
2. Religion defines the structure of the universe and the relation of man and society to the universe.
3. Provides behavior guidelines and values.
4. Provides motivation.
5. Provides relief from stress and anxiety.
6. Provides social rules and political order.
7. Provides resolution of conflict.
8. Provides justice and the enforcement of law.
9. Used for the justification of political policy.
10. Is the vital part in healing and health.
Common Concepts in Religion
1. Pilgrimage- a journey back to the beginning to find God's heart.
2. Mana- notion that there is spiritual power in people, places, and things.
3. Celebacy- abstaining from sex.
4. Witches- people who have supernatural power.
5. Self Mutilation & Purification Through Pain & Suffering- done to have a vision of what God sees.
6. Cannabalism- eating people is not for a meal but to get something they think the other person possesses.
1. Ritual acts to unite a community.
2. Portrays or acts out an important aspect of myth.
3. To influence the spiritual world to benefit the practitioner.
Coersive- voodoo dolls
Contagious- voodoo dolls with hair
Myths of Religion
1. Origin of the universe.
2. History of the God.
3. Origin of man and animals.
4. Myth & origin of man & afterlife.
How Religion Changes
1. Syncretism- blending of religious beliefs through contact of other cultures.
2. Internal Shifting- religious beliefs shift in relation to society.
3. Revitalization Movements- take place in times of economic stress when groups feel socially isolated and when there is an extreme difference in poor and rich people.
Ascribed (given to you)
Divorce and Remarriage
Functions of Marriage
1. Marriage establishes the legal father and mother of children.
2. Gives the husband and wife mutual monopoly on sexuality.
3. Mutual rights to labor.
4. Provides for rights over property.
5. Provides for a join fund of property for children.
6. Creates relationships to relatives.
7. Determines property transfer at death.
Types of Marriage
1. Polygyny- more than one wife.
2. Polyandry- more than one husband.
3. Serial Monogamy- one wife at a time but several wives over a lifetime.
Two Common Rules Associated with Marriage
1. Sororate- a rule of sister substitute.
2. Levirate- a rule of brother substitute.
Economic Exchanges in Marriage
1. General Exchange- give group A a wife from group B and group B a wife from group A.
2. Bride Price- gift exchange.
3. Dowry- wife's family gives her something of value to take with her into the marriage.
Exogamy is marriage outside of a given group.
Ways of Measuring Descent
1. Patrilineal- measured through the male's family line.
2. Matrilineal- measured through the female's family line.
3. Bilateral- measured through both male and female family lines,
Types of Descent Groups
1. Lineages- groups of kin who trace descent from common ancestor.
2. Clan- groups that trace ancestory to a mythological figure.
3. Phratry- groups of clans that may have fictious but functional relationships.
4. Moiety- two clans with reciprical relationships that are often ceremonial, religious, political, or involve marriage partner selection.
Code of Ethics
There is a responsibility to...
1. Those studied.
2. The general public.
3. The discipline of anthropology.
4. To students.
5. To sponsors.
6. To one's own and/or host government.
Four Roles in Problem Solving (Applied Anthropology)
1. Research- understand the problem with intent to intervene.
2. Policy & Program Design- what is exceptable or unexceptable and find a way to intervene.
3. Implementation- taking action/intervene.
4. Evaluation- making sure things being done are working.
Fields of Anthropology
1. Salvage Anthropology- saving important information before it is destroyed.
2. Education- learn from other cultures.
3. Urban Anthropology- Changes for the good.
4. Medical Anthropology- healthcare systems and delivery.
5. Social Work, Business, & Media.
Trends in Development
1. Syphoning- taking wealth from the peasants to give to the elite.
Components & Reasons for Migration
1. People that migrate are separated from their family.
2. Lowest minority status.
3. Environmental Degradation
4. Global Warming
5. Population Growth
6. Species Distinction
7. Run out of resources.
8. Employment Shifting.
1. Green Revolution
Sisal is a plant that is turned into fiber.
Development is planned change with an intervention policy.
Rules of Development Failure
2. Projects that result in a radical shift in lifestyle.
3. Projects that require a shift from subsistance agriculture to 100% cash crop.
Indicators of Successful Development
1. Culturally Compatable.
2. Development that responds to locally perceived needs for change.
3. Should harness traditional organizations.
4. Has a proper and flexible social design for project implementation.
Five Issues of Benefit of Development
Community Development Corporation (CDC) Charateristics
1. Evolved from the notion that the community should be involved.
2. Undertake projects that involve construction or renovation.
3. Located in specific geographic neighborhoods.
4. All non-profit organizations.
Three Types of Money Available to Non-Profit Organizations with 501.C.3
Federal Legislation for CDC
4. State HFA
Card Set Information
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