GCSE Biology

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GCSE Biology
2012-06-09 05:15:39

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  1. the photograohy shows a musk ox

    the musk ox lives in the arctic . An adult musk ox is 2.5m long and 1.4 at the shoulder . Adults usually have a mass of about 400kg
    use this information from the photography to explain two ways on which a musk ox is adaapted to survival in the arctic (4)
    • thick fur - good insulator
    • small surface areas to volume ratio - retains heat
  2. Darwin said that humans had evolved from ape like ancestors many people disagreed with him at the time give two reasons why (2)
    • insufficient evidence
    • his theory went agaisnt religious beliefs
  3. Lamracks theory of evolution stated that useful changes which occur in an organism during its lifetime will be inhertied by its offspring . Give one way in which Darwins theory differs from Lamracks .
    Darwins theory depeends on differences in genes at birth
  4. what is meany by metabolic rate (2)
    the rate at which chemical reactions in the cells
  5. decsribe the relationship between the two types of lipoprotein and heart health (3)
    • LDL's increase the risk of getting heart disease
    • HDL's decrease the risk of getting heart disease
    • a balance is important for good health
    • we need high HDL and low LDL
  6. Desert plants are adapted for survival in axry climate
    Joshua trees live in deserts
    Joshua trees have two types of root :
    a system of shallow roots spread over a large area
    roots about 1m in diameter , shaped like bulbs deep in the soil
    explain the advantage of the Joshua tree having shallow roots spread out over a large area (2)
    increased water uptake after rain
  7. Desert plants are adapted for survival in a dry climate

    Joshua trees live in deserts Joshua trees have two types of root :a system of shallow roots spread over a large arearoots about 1m in diameter , shaped like bulbs deep in the soil . explain the advantage of the Joshua tree having large bulb like roots deep in the soil (1)
    • stability
    • or
    • water storage
    • or
    • safety from predators
  8. creosote bushes also live in the desert

    the leaves of creosote bushes :
    are covered with a layer of wax
    fold together during the day
    explain how the leaves of the creosote bush help it to survive in deserts (3)
    • reduces water loss
    • wax protects plant or reflects heat or keeps plant cool or unpalatable
    • folding reduces surface area
  9. name two hormones involved with IVF treatment (2)
    • FHS
    • LH
  10. what happens to peoples bodies when they become dependant on a drug (2)
    • drugs alter the chemical processes in the body
    • person sufferes withdrawal symptome without the drug
  11. in fact the overall effect of alcohol on the health of the UK population is much more than the effect of heroin suggest an exlpaination for this (2)
    • many more people use alcohol
    • less harmful but affect multiplied
  12. Humans have evolved from ape-like ancestors by natural selection . The drawing shows the pelvis of an ape like ancestor and a modern human . The skull and brain of the new born baby are also shown to the same scale . Modern humans are much more intelligent than ape like ancestors
    suggest an explaination for the size and shape of the pelvis of modern humans (4)
    variation in the size and shape of the pelvis that meant the human had a wider birth canal that allowed women to have big brained babies , which increased the babies intelligence . Those with larger pelvis more likely to survive to reproduce . Genes past onto next generation
  13. name two conditions of the environment that the camel must survive in dry desert condtions
    • low levels of water
    • hot weather
  14. explain how each of the adaptations shown improves the camel's chances of surviving (4)
    • it can drink large quantities of water at once so it can store large amounts of water to prevent it dehydrating in periods of draught
    • it has wide flat feet to stop it sinking in the sand
    • they also have fat stored in a hump , so in periods of draught the fat can be broken down to form water
    • its body cells can tlerate high levels of dehydration than most animals so that it has a better chance of survival in draught conditions
  15. define biomass
    biological material ; in particular the total mass of living material at a specified level in a food chain or in a specified area
  16. the drawings show two different types of butterfly
    the amauris is below

    below is the hypolimnas

    both species are eaten by msst birds
    amauris has a foul taste which birds do not like , so birds have learned not to prey on it
    hypolimnas does not have a foul taste but most birds do not prey on it suggest why most birds do not prey on hypolimnas (2)
    • wing pattern similar to amauris
    • birds assume it has a foul taste
  17. what does the theory of evolution state (2)
    present day organisms have evolved from simpler organisms over long periods of time
  18. the dodo became extinct about 80 years after dutch sailors first discovered the island in the 18th century . Scientists are uncertain about the reasons for the dodo's extinction suggest an explaination for this uncertanity (1)
    evidence has all gone
  19. flamingos feed on organisms that live in mud at the bottom of lakes
    leopards prey on flamingos
    flamingos find it difficult to fly if their feathers get wet
    flamingos have very long legs how would lamracks theory explain the evolution of these long legs (2)
    • flamingos stretched their legs (to be able to feed in deeper water/keep feathers dry/ escape from leopards)
    • longer legs are an aquired characteristic inhertied by offspring
  20. the government has been accused of "inexcusanle behaviour" because a calf of a cloned American "champion" cow has been born on a British farm . Campaigners say it will undermine trust in British food because the cloned cow's milk could enter the food chain . But supporters of cloning say that milk from clones and their offspring is as safe as the milk we drink every day . Those in favour of cloning say that an animal clone is a genetic copy . It is not the same as a genetically engineered animal . Opponents of cloning say that consumers will be uneasy about drinking milk from cloned animals
    use the information in the passage and your own knowledge and understanding to evaluate whether the government should allow the production of milk from cloned "champion" cows . Remember to give a conclusion to your evaluation (5)
    • the case for producing milk from "champion cows" is mainly the fact that the yeild of milk is increased so British farmers will gain more profit . The clone is not genetically engineered and the genetic material has not been altered .
    • the case agaainst producing milk from "champion" cows is that there will be a reduced gene pool and consumer resistance . Also people have ethical reasons for not wanting milk to be produced from cloned cows
    • to conlcude i dont think we should produce milk from cloned cows despite that the milk may be safe to drink because we have no proof that the milk is safe to drink
  21. during its life the rabbit ate a lot of grass . The carbon in the grass became part of the rabbit's body . The rabbit has died and is left not eaten . How is the carbon recycled back into the grass which other rabbits will eat (6)
    • when a rabbit dies its body is decomposed by soil microorganisms . Some of these microorganisms use enzymes to digest the complex carbon in the rabbit's body into sugars . These sugars are then used by the microorganisms in respiration to produce energy . The carbon dioxide produced during respiration is released into the atmosphere
    • grass absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis , producing carbohydrates , which contain carbon . When other rabbits eat grass , the carbohydrates in the grass is digested , forming sugars which are absorbed into the rabbits blood