EAWS Phase 1 Block 14

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EAWS Phase 1 Block 14
2012-06-09 03:35:00

Fundamentals of Flight
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  1. What is motion?
    The act, or process, of changing place or position; simply put, motion is movement.
  2. What is acceleration?
    The rate of change of the speed and or velocity of matter with time.
  3. What is speed?
    The rate of movement in terms of distance measured in an allotted amount of time.
  4. What is velocity?
    The quickness or speed of an object in a given time and direction.
  5. What is Newton's first law of motion?
    According to Newton's first law of motion (inertia), an object at rest will remain at rest, or an object in motion will continue in motion at the same speed and in the same direction, until acted upon by an outside force.
  6. What is Newton's second law of motion?
    The second law of motion (force) states that if an object moving with uniform speed is acted upon by an external force, the change of motion, or acceleration, will be directly proportional to the amount of force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being moved.
  7. What is Newton's third law of motion?
    The third law of motion (action and reaction) states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  8. What is Bernoulli's principle?
    • The principle states that when a fluid flowing through a tube reaches a constriction or narrowing of the tube, the speed of the fluid passing through the constriction is increased and its pressure decreased. The general lift of an airfoil is dependent upon the airfoil's ability to create circulation in the air stream and develop the lifting pressure over the airfoil surface. As the relative wind strikes the leading edge of the airfoil, the flow of air is split. Part of the air is deflected upward and aft, and the rest is deflected down and aft. Since the upper surface of the wing has camber, or a curve, the flow over its surface is disrupted, and this causes a wavelike effect to the wing. The lower surface is relatively flat. Lift is accomplished by the difference in the airflow across the airfoil.
  9. What is Lift?
    • The force that acts, in an upward direction, to support the aircraft in the air. It counteracts the effects of weight. Lift must be greater than or equal to weight if flight is to be sustained.
  10. What is weight?
    • The force of gravity acting downward on the aircraft and everything on the aircraft.
  11. What is drag?
    • The force that tends to hold an aircraft back. Drag is caused by the disruption of the air about the wings, fuselage or body, and all protruding objects on the aircraft. Drag resists motion.
  12. What is thrust?
    • The force developed by the aircraft's engine, and it acts in the forward direction. Thrust must be greater than or equal to the effects of drag in order for flight to begin or be sustained.
  13. What is the Longitudinal axis?
    • An imaginary reference line running down the center of the aircraft between the nose and tail.
  14. What is lateral axis?
    • An imaginary reference line running parallel to the wings.
  15. What is vertical axis?
    • An imaginary reference line running parallel to the wings.
  16. What do the ailerons control?
    They control movement on the longitudinal axis (roll).
  17. What do the elevators control?
    They control movement on the lateral axis (pitch).
  18. What does the rudder control?
    The rudder controls movement on the vertical axis (yaw).
  19. On a rotary wing aircraft what is the cyclic stick (roll/pitch)?
    • Tilts the plane (angle) of the rotor blades forward, aft or sideways, giving the helicopter its directional motion by changing the direction of the lift; from vertical to a varying degree based on a 0° centerline.
  20. On a rotary wing aircraft what is the tail rotor (yaw)?
    • This component counteracts torque of the main rotor by increasing or decreasing the amount of horizontal thrust the tail rotor produces, this movement is around the vertical axis.
  21. What is the purpose of flaps (leading/trailing edge)?
    Creates extra lift by lengthening the top section of the wing resulting in maximum lift to reduce takeoff runs and landing rollout.
  22. What is the purpose of the spoiler?
    Used to decrease or spoil wing lift by destroying the smooth flow of air over the wing surfaces, this creates a more predictable landing glideslope.
  23. What are speed breaks?
    Hinged or moveable control surfaces used for reducing the speed of aircraft. Location varies on the model of aircraft; however the purpose remains the same.
  24. What are slats?
    Slats are movable control surfaces attached to the leading edge of the wing. When open, or extended forward, a slot is created between the slat and the wing leading edge. High-energy air is introduced into the boundary layer over the top of the wing. At low airspeeds, this improves the lateral control handling characteristics, allowing the aircraft to be controlled at airspeeds below the normal landing speed. This is known as boundary layer control.
  25. What does the unique flight term 'collective' mean?
    The main rotor of a helicopter consists of two or more rotor blades. Lift is accomplished by rotating the blades through the air at a high rate of speed. Lift may be changed by collectively increasing the angle of attack or pitch of the rotor blades. When the rotor is turning and the blades are at zero angle (flat pitch), no lift is developed.
  26. What does the unique flight term 'angle of attack (AoA)' mean?
    • The angle at which the airfoil or fuselage meets a flow of air. Defined as the angle between the chord line of the wing (an imaginary straight line from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing) and the relative wind. The relative wind is the direction of the air stream in relationship to the wing. Angle of attack is measured in "units" as opposed to degrees.
  27. What does the unique flight term 'autorotation' mean?
    A method of allowing a helicopter to land safely from altitude without using engine power. As a helicopter is descending in altitude the collective is lowered allowing the reverse airflow through the rotor to maintain RPM. When the helicopter reaches a predetermined altitude the collective pitch is increased to convert inertial energy into lift to reduce the rate of descent and cushion the landing.
  28. Describe to componets of a basic aircraft hydraulic system.
    • - A reservoir to hold a supply of hydraulic fluid.
    • - A pump to provide a flow of fluid.
    • - Tubing to transmit the fluid.
    • - A selector valve to direct the flow of fluid.
    • - An actuating unit to convert the fluid pressure into useful work.
  29. What is the purpose of the shock strut assembly in the landing gear?
    Absorbs the shock that otherwise would be sustained by the airframe.
  30. What is the purpose of the tires in the landing gear?
    Allows the aircraft to roll easily and provides traction during takeoff and landing.
  31. What is the purpose of the wheel break assembly in the landing gear?
    Used to slow and stop the aircraft. Also used to prevent the aircraft from rolling while parked.
  32. What is the purpose of the retracting and extending mechanism in the landing gear?
    All the necessary hardware to electrically or hydraulically extend and retract the landing gear.
  33. What is the purpose of the side struts and supports in the landing gear?
    Provide lateral strength/support for the landing gear.