Biology Final

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Biology Final
2012-06-09 15:30:45
Biology Final

All the things that were on the study guide for the final.
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  1. Problems of cell growth
    The larger the cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA. In addition, the cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across the membrane.
  2. Stages of the Cell Cycle
    G1 Phase, S Phase, G2 Phase, M Phase
  3. G1 Phase
    is a period of activity in which cells do most of their growing. During this phase, cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles.
  4. G2 Phase
    When the DNA replication is completed, the cell enters the G2 phase. G2 is usually the shortest of the 3 phases of the interphase. During the G2 phase, many of the organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced. When the events of the G2 phase are completed, the cell is ready to enter the M phase and begin the process of cell division.
  5. Disruptive Selection
    When individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle.
  6. Temporal Isolation
    In which 2 or more species reproduce at different times.
  7. Behavoiral Isolation
    Occurs when 2 populations are capable of interbreeding but have differences in courtship rituals or other reproductive strategies that involve behavoir.
  8. Prophase II
    Meiosis I results in 2 haploid daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
  9. Geographic Isolation
    2 populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water.
  10. What is the factor necessary for a new species?
    Reproduction Isolation
  11. Genotype
    Genetic Makeup
  12. Phenotype
    • Physical characteristics.
    • Bb= Brown eyes
    • bb= Blue eyes
  13. Sister Chromatids
    Parts of a duplicated chromosome.
  14. Homozygous
    • Organisms with 2 identical alleles for a particular trait.
    • TT
    • tt
  15. 2 Sources of Genetic Variation
    • Mutations
    • Crossing over with homologs
  16. S Phase
    In which chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of DNA molecules take place. Key proteins associated with the chromosomes are also synthesized. Usually, once a cell enters the S phase and begins the replication of its chromosomes, it completes the rest of the cell cycle.
  17. Centromere
    Usually located near the middle of the chromatids, although some lie near the ends. it is also a point chromosomes.
  18. Heterozygous
    • Organism with 2 different alleles for the same trait.
    • Tt