Psy 110.3

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Psy 110.3
2012-06-09 16:34:37
Sensation Perception

Chapter 3
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  1. Disorder in which the signals from the various sensory organs are processed in the wrong cortical areas, resulting in the sense information being interpreted as more than one sensation.
  2. The process that occurs when special receptors in the sense organs are activated, allowing varous forms of outside stimuli to beomce neural signs in the brain.
  3. The process of converting outside stimuli, such as light, into neural activity.
  4. The smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectible 50% of the time.
    Just Noticeable Difference (JND or Difference Threshold)
  5. The lowest level of stimulation that a person can consciously detect 50% of the time stimulation is present.
    Absolute Threshold
  6. Tendancy of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information.
  7. Tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulous that is unchanging.
    Sensory Adaptation
  8. The change in the thickness of the lens as an eye focuses on the objects that are far away or close.
    Visual Accommodation
  9. Visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for noncolor sensitivity to low levels of light.
  10. Visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina, responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision.
  11. Area in the retina where the axons of the three layers of the retinal cells exit the eye to form the optic nerve; insensitive to light.
    Blind Spot
  12. The recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright light.
    Dark Adaptation
  13. The recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness.
    Light Adaptation
  14. Theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: red, blue and green.
    Trichromatic Theory
  15. Images that occur when a viaual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulous is removed.
  16. Theory of color vision that propolses four primary colors with cones arranged in pairs: red and green and blue and yellow.
    Opponent-Process Theory
  17. Cycles or waves per second, a measurement of frequency.
    Hertz (Hz)
  18. The visible part of the ear.
  19. Short tunnel that runs from the pinna to the eardurm
    Auditory Canal
  20. Snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that is filled with fluid.
  21. Bundles of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear.
    Auditory Nerve
  22. Psychological experience of sound that corresponds to the frequency of the sounds waves; higher frequencies are perceived as higher pitches.
  23. Theory of pitch that states that differents pitches are experienced by the stimulation of the hair cells in different locations on the Organ of Corti
    Place Theory
  24. Theory of pitch that states that pitch is related to the speed of vibrations in the basilar membrane.
    Frequency Theory
  25. Theory of pitch that states that frequencies above 100Hz cause the hair cells (auditory neurons) to fire in a volley pattern, or take turns firing.
    Volley Theory
  26. The sensation of taste.
  27. The sensation of smell.
    Olfaction (olfactory sense)
  28. Areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells.
    Olfactory Bulbs
  29. The body senses consisting of skin senses, the kinesthetic sense and the vestibular senses.
    Somesthetic Senses
  30. The sensation of touch, pressure, temperature and pain.
    Skin Senses
  31. Sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other.
    Kinesthentic Senses
  32. The sensations of movement, balance and body position.
    Vestibular Sense
  33. An explanation of motion sickness in which the information from the eys conflicts with the information from the vestibular senses, resulting in dizziness, nausea and other physical discomfort.
    Sensory Conflict Theory
  34. The method by which the sensations experience at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion.
  35. The tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant, even when its shape changes on the retina.
    Shape Constancy
  36. The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size, regardless of its distance.
    Size Constancy
  37. The tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change.
    Brightness Constancy
  38. The tendency to perceive objects or figures as existing on a background.
  39. Visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reversed.
    Reversible Figures
  40. The tendancy to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping.
  41. The tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group.
  42. The tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.
  43. The tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with the continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken up pattern.
  44. The tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related.
  45. The ability to perceive the world in three dimensions.
    Depth Perception
  46. Cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only.
    Monocular Cues (Pictorial Depth Cues)
  47. Cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes.
    Binocular Cues
  48. The tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other.
    Linear Perspective
  49. Perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be much further away.
    Relative Size
  50. The assumption that an object appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer.
    Overlap (Interposition)
  51. The haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer, causing the distance to be perceived as greater.
    Aerial Perspective
  52. The tendency for texured surfaces to appear to beomce smaller and finer as distance from the viewer increases.
    Texture Gradient
  53. The perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away.
    Motion Parallax
  54. The rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single objects, resulting in great convergence for closer objects and lesser convergence if objects are distant.
  55. The different in images between the two eyes, which is greater for objects that are close and smaller for distant objects.
    Binocular Disparity
  56. Illusion of line lenght that is distorted by inward-turning and outward-turning corners on the ends of the lines, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different.
    Muller-Lyer Illusion
  57. The tendency to perceive things a certain way beause previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions.
    Perceptual Set (Perceptual Expectancy)
  58. The use of pre-existing knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole.
    Top-Down Processing
  59. The analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception.
    Bottom-Up Processing
  60. The study of ESP, ghosts and other subjects that do not normally fall into the realm of ordinary psychology.
  61. Sensation of loudness determined by the amplified (or height) of a sound wave.
  62. The quality of sound that distinguishes it from other sounds with the same pitch and volume. Sound quality, thin, thick, light, dark, sharp, dull. Corresponds to the degree of mixture of varying wavelengths.
    Timbre (TAM-br)
  63. Medical devises surgically implanted to bypass damage in the inner ear and directly stimulate auditory nerve endings.
    Cochlear Implant
  64. Theory of pain that states that pyschological experience of pain is controlled by a series of "gates" in the central and peripheral nervous system that can allow or block the flow of pain information depending on a number of factors.
    Gate-Control Theory
  65. Sensory receptors that detect pain and pressure in organs.
    Proprioceptive Receptors
  66. States that size of the just noticeable difference is a constant proportion.
    Weber's Law
  67. Three circular tubes filled with fluid and lined with hair-like receptors that fire when the body moves in any direction.
    Semicircular Canals
  68. A perception that doesn't correspond to reality.
  69. Nerve tissue lining the inside of the back of the eye that contains sensory receptors that convert focused light into nerve impluses and transmits the information to the brain through the optic nerves.
  70. Corresponds to the amplitude (or height) of a light wave.
  71. Reduced ability to distinguish colors due to damage to the cones of the retina.
    Color Blindness
  72. Determined by the frequency (or length) of a light wave.
    Color (Hue)
  73. Sensory receptors of the auditory system, specifically specialized neurons that convert sound into electrical-chemical signals.
    Hair Cells
  74. Bundle of axons carrying visual information from the retina to the brain.
    Optic Nerve
  75. Relates to the degree of mixture of light waves of varying frequency.
  76. Small structures located under the papillae in the mouth that contain the sensory receptors for the gustatory systems.
    Taste Buds
  77. Little bumps in the mouth you can see with your eye.