Biology Final

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soccer6
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157959
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Biology Final
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2012-06-09 16:49:37
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Biology Final
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Notes for studying for final - 6/11
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  1. Problems of Cell Growth
    • The larger the cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA.
    • In addition, the cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane.
  2. Stages of the Cell Cycle
    G1 Phase, S Phase, G2 Phase, M Phase
  3. G1 Phase
    is a period of activity in which cells do most of their growing. During this phase, cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles.
  4. S Phase
    In which chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of DNA molecules take place. key proteins associated with the chromosomes are also synthesized. Usually, once a cell enters the S phase and begins the replictaion of its chromosomes, it completes the rest of the cell cycle.
  5. G2 Phase
    When the DNA replication is completed, the cell enters the G2 phase. G2 is usually the shortest of the 3 phases of interphase. During the G2 phase, many of the organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced. When the events of the G2 phase are completed, the cell is ready to enter the M phase and begin the process of cell division.
  6. Disruptive Selection
    When individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness then individuals near the middles.
  7. Heterozygous
    • Organisms with 2 different alleles for thesame trait.
    • Tt
  8. Centromere
    Usually located near the middle of the chromatid, although some lie near the ends. It is a poinnt on the chromosomes.
  9. 2 Sources of Genetic Variation
    • By introducing mutations.
    • Crossing over with homologs.
  10. Homozygous
    • Organisms with 2 identical alleles for a particular trait.
    • TT
    • tt
  11. Sister Chromatids
    Parts of a duplicated chromosome.
  12. Phenotype
    Physical Characteristics
  13. Genotype
    Genetic Makeup
  14. What is the Factor necessary for a new species?
    Reproductive Isolation.
  15. Geographic Isolation
    2 populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains or bodies of water.
  16. Prophase II
    Meiosis I results in 2 haploid daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
  17. Behavoiral Isolation
    Occurs when 2 populations are capable of interbreeding but have different courtship rituals or other reproductive strategies that involve behavoir.
  18. Temporal Isolation
    In which 2 or more species reproduce at different times.
  19. Stabilizing Selection
    When individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end of the curve.
  20. Haploid
    Contains a single set of chromosomes.
  21. Recessive Trait
    Does not show if there is aa dominant allele present.
  22. RNA
    • Ribonucleic Acid
    • Sugar id ribose
    • Single-stranded
    • Has uracil
  23. DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid.
    • Deoxyribose sugar
    • Double- stranded
    • Has thymine
  24. Translation
    The decoding of an mRNA message into a polypeptidde chain (protein)
  25. Transcription
    The process in which RNA molecules are produced by copying part of the nucleotide seequence of DNA into a complentary sequence in RNA.
  26. Anaphase II
    The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.
  27. B b
    B BB Bb
    b Bb bb
    What is this?
    Punnett Square
  28. Meiosis Phases in order
    Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I and Cytokinesis, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II and Cytokinesis.
  29. Prophase I
    Each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form a tetrad.
  30. Metaphase I
    Spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes.
  31. Telophase I and Cytokinesis
    • Nuclear membranes form. the cell separates into 2 cells.
    • From diploid to haploid
    • Form tetrads for crossing- over.
  32. Metaphase II
    The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.
  33. Name of stages in Mitosis in order.
    Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and telophase.
  34. Prophase (Mitosis)
    The chromatin condenses into chromosomes, the centrioles separate and a spindle begins to form. The nuclear envelope breaks down.
  35. Metaphase (Mitosis)
    The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere.
  36. 2 main stages of cell division
    Mitosis and Cytokinesis.
  37. Centriole
    2 tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope. They help organize spindle.
  38. Anaphase (Mitosis)
    The sister chromatids separate into individual chromosome and are moved apart.
  39. Spindle
    A fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes.
  40. Codominant Trait
    • Trait which both alleles contribute to the phenotype.
    • White Flower and Rd flower make pink.
  41. Polygenic Traits
    • Traits controlled by 2 or more genes.
    • Skin (so many)
  42. mRNA
    Carry instructions from DNA to the ribosome so that proteins can be produced. (Messenger RNA)
  43. Telophase (Mitosis)
    The chromosome gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shape. 2 new nuclear envelopes will form.
  44. Dominant Trait
    Will always show becausse it is dominant.
  45. Diploid
    contains 2 sets of chromosomes.
  46. rRNA
    Which along with specific proteins make up the organelle called called the ribosome whose function is to produce proteins. Ribosomal RNA.
  47. tRNA
    which is involved in bringing the correct amino acid into place for a polymerizing protein chain. Transfer RNA.
  48. Codons
    Codons work when 3 nucleotides are put together to code for amino acids.
  49. What Genes code for creating?
    Genes code for creating proteins.
  50. Darwin's theory of Evolution
    During his travels, Darwin made numerous observations and collected evidence that led him to propose a revoltionary hypothesis about the way life changes over time.
  51. Evidence Darwin Discovered
    • Homologous Structures
    • Embryos
    • Fossil Layers
  52. Telophase II and Cytokinesis
    Meiosis II results in 4 haploid daughter cells. Duplicate chromosomes haven't been separated.
  53. Directional Selection
    When individuals at 1 end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end.
  54. Anaphase I
    The fibers pull the homologous chromosomes toward opposite ends of the cell.
  55. What were the first life forms?
    single-celled prokaryote- amino acids.
  56. How did organisms react to the slow increase in oxygen levels?
    Drove some life forms to etinction while other life forms evolved new, more efficent metabolic pathways that used oxygen for respiration.
  57. What colors were the seas and why?
    Early oceans were brown because of the dissolved iron that they contained.
  58. What did Early Earth's atmospher contain?
    Hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, water.
  59. How much of Earth's life forms have become extinct?
    99%
  60. Convergent Evolution
    • process by which studies of organisms come to resemble one another. When adapting inot a similar environment.
    • Ex. penguins, dolphins and sharks.
  61. Coevolution
    • The process by which 2 species evolve in response to changes in each other over time.
    • Ex. Orchids pollen got deeper so the moths beak got longer.
  62. Adaptive Radiation
    the process by which studies of fossils or of living organisms show that a single species or a small group of species has evolved, through natural selection and other processes, into diverse forms that live in different ways.
  63. Proteinoid Microspheres
    They have selectively permeable membranes through which water molecules can pass. They have simple means of storing and releasing energy.
  64. Relative Dating
    the age of a fossil is determined by comparing its placement with that of fossil in other layers of rock.
  65. Radioactive Dating
    Is the use of half-lives to determine the age of a sample.
  66. Miller and Urey Experiments: What did they demostrate?
    Early Earth's Atmospher and building blocks of life which are amino acids.

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