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How does the CTM effect blade pitch?
Reduce pitch (fine)
What are the requirements for a max rate turn?
- Maximum density at sea level
- minimise wing loading
- maximise the produce of Cl, V and sin theta.
What does mach number mean?
The speed of an object or flow divided by the speed of sound in the same part of the atmosphere
What will increased weight in tip tanks do to a spin?
increasing weight in tip tanks will be pro-spin
For SFC, why is it important to have the throttle open?
Power output is improved if there are no obastructions to gas flow, therefore, having the throttle fully open improves SFC
Where will the shockwave first occur usually?
30% chord on the top of the wing
What are the requirements for an efficient propeller?
- Large diameter
- High RPM to reduce RAF helix angle at high speeds
- Efficient blade section and angle of attack
What is the formula for SAR?
What is centripetal force?
Centripetal force is the force acting in a turn to accelerate through the turn. The force which acts inwards to a turn
Spin direction is defined as?
It is determined by the direction of the yaw
Can you have no critical engine for a multi engine aircraft?
yes, an example of this is contra-rotating propellers or an aircraft with in-line engines.
How can you determine the critical engine?
it is the engine which, if failed, gives the greatest yawing moment.
What happens to the speed of sound at altitude?
it decreases due to the reduction in temperature
What is propeller solidity?
Number of blades x chord at radius (y) divided by the circumference at (y).
Increase by increasing top line and minimising the bottom
What happens to p, d, and temp through a shockwave?
they all increase
how does altitude effect turn radius?
due to TAS increasing with height at a constant EAS it increases turn radius
How does the ATM effect prop pitch?
ATM increases pitch or coarsens
how can increased thrust effect turns?
if the thrust has a vertical componant to it then it will add to lift there by reducing radius and increasing rate
What are the requirements for an auto-rotation?
- mean angle of attack at or greater than the stall
- roll, which generally results from a wing drop or yaw in deliberate spin entry
The minimum IAS, under take-off power conditions, at which directional control of the aircraft can be maintained using rudder alone following a failure of the critical engine on a take-off run
VMCA is the minimum IAS at which, in the event of a sudden and complete engine failure of the critical engine, in take-off configuration, it is possible to maintain directional control, and thereafter, maintain steady flight using full rudder deflection and a maximum of 5 degrees angle of bank away from the failed engine.
What are the cockpit indications of the rudder and aob technique?
- Wings banked >10
- Ball displaced slightly towards the live engine
- No drift
Define a spin
a condition of stalled flight in which a fixed wing aircraft rotates about its own axis and descends in a helical flight path about a vertical axis as a result of an autorotaion
Describe the airtrainer technique for endurance
- fly as low as practicable.
- Set 1800 and 18 inches which should give 90-100kts
- reduce fuel flow to rough running plus five.
- CAUTION for cht exceeding 205 (mixture)
Describe the airtrainer technique for range
- Climb at full power and recommended climb speed to full throttle height for 23 inches (normally 7000).
- Allow aircraft to accelerate to 110kts then reduce rpm to 1800.
- Adjust fuel flow to rough running plus 5.
- CAUTION for cht (mixture)
What effect does altitude have on longitudinal stability?
Due to tas increasing with height, aoa on the tailplane is thereby reduced giving it a lesser restoring force. This is remedied by an increase in the saize of the tail plane on high altitude aircraft
How can a prop overspeed when going through to reverse thrust?
As it goes through the windmilling stage to the reverse thrust stage, it reaches a point where the total reaction doesnt have a forward or back componant meaning the prop can overspeed at this time.
Describe the need for endurance
The need for endurance is to keep the aircraft in the air for the maximum amount of time. It is used for things like search and rescue missions but is rarely used in everyday flying.
How does a shockwave effect drag?
A shockwave has two extra elements of drag that effect. They being energy drag and boundary layer seperation drag.
What are the conditions of a fully developed spin?
roll and yaw are fairly stable, and the aircraft presents its upper surface to the spin axis.
What are the immediate aerodynamic effects of engine failure assymetric?
Roll and yaw
Why do we fly at higher speeds than Vimd for range?
- The variation of TA/power ratio at speeds near Vimd is negligable and a slightly higher speed will allow a faster flight without undue loss of range and,
- Turbulence or manouevres will cause a loss of lift, and a subsequent loss of height. Power is used and therefore more fuel is wasted