Kaplan review

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  1. Empty sella syndrome
  2. Renal complication of DIC
  3. Mesangial IgA nephropathy
  4. Organs supplied by the celiac trunk
  5. myoglobinuria
  6. cholecystitis
  7. MI and heart timeline
    • Chest pain immediately
    • - 1 hour no change at all histologically
    • - 12 hours - irreversible ischemia -> necrosis -> eosinophilic myocyctes
    • - day 1 until day 2-3 inlfammatory takes place = PMN (lymphocytes at the end)
    • -days 5 and on = ganulation  
  8. What are the nerves associated with C5 & C6?
    • Suprascapular
    • musculocutaneous
    • axillary   
  9. What are the actions mediated by C5?
    • Flexion, abduction, and lateral rotation of the shoulder
    • Flexion of the arm at the elbow  
  10. What is the treatment of choice for a pregnant female with a diastolic BP above 100 mmHg?
    What is the mechanism of action?

    Intranueronally converted to a-methylnorepinephrine -> a alpha 2 receptor agonist -> decrease in sympathetic outflow -> decrease in blood pressure
  11. What does chronic lead poisoning lead to?
    • Anemia (basophilic stippling of RBC)
    • abdominal pain
    • neuropathy    
  12. Boy presents with small pigmented macules over the body (buccal mucosa, lips, palms, soles, and skin). What is there an increase risk of?
    • This boy has Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
    • associated with increased potential to develop carcinomas of the pancreas, colon, stomach, small intestine, breast, ovary, uterus, cervix, and lung.  
  13. What types of drugs are contraindicated in patients experiencing exertional angina?
    • Beta-blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
    • - acetbutolol 
    • -pindolol   
  14. What causes a decrease in lung compliance?
    • Anything that inhibits full opening of the alveoli.
    • EX: fibrous material deposited in the interstitium and alveolar walls -> reduces distensibility.  
  15. Describe the pathophysiology of HSV 2
    • causes lytic infections in mucoepithelial cells
    • travels by retrograde transport into neurone of the sacral ganglia during the asymptomatic phase of the disease.  
  16. Presentation of gag reflex with lesion to the left glossopharyngeal and left vagus nerve
    • When gag activated on the right side gag relfex is intact but the uvula deviates to the right only = vagus nerve lesion of the left.
    • Gag activated on the left side nothing happens = glossopharyngeal nerve lesion of the left.  
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Kaplan review
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