MRIS 210 3,4, and 5

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casser10
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158001
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MRIS 210 3,4, and 5
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2012-06-18 18:38:23
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MRIS 210
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Chapter 3, 4, and 5
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  1. Sources of Infections
    • Endogenous
    • Exogenous
    • Nosocomial
    • Community Aquired
  2. Vector
    • Mode of transporting the organism Ex. Deer Carrying Ticks
    • Vector-Hector!
  3. Virulence
    Disease Producing Potential
  4. Host
    • organism capable of supporting the nutritional/physical growth of another organism
    • Ex. Strep Throat
  5. Carrier
    one who has a pathogen without disease and can pass it on
  6. Nosocomial
    Infections occur in health care facilities indlucing hospitals, nursing homes, doctors' offices, and dental offices
  7. Normal Flora
    bacteria that live on in the body or on the skin do not cause illness common places- skin, eyes, mouth, upper throat
  8. Staphylococcus aureus
    • gram positive (staining material if it purple its gram negative)
    • Naturally occurring in nares
    • S&S:
    • Redness (erythema),swelling, fever (febrile), leukocytosis, pyogenic(producing pus)
    • Dx:
    • culture and sensitivity
    • To treat ANY infection you need to remove the pathogen!
    • Prevention: aseptic technique (before surgery apply antibacterial wash) Isolation, culture of nose of all staff member who were in contact
  9. Staphylococcus aureus
    • Types of Disease
    • Toxic Shock
    • Furuncles (boils- on the skin) carbuncles
    • Osteomyelitis
    • Abscess (anywhere in the body)
    • Pneumonia (elderly)
    • Bacteremia(septicemia)
    • Entercolitis Post-op Infections
  10. Streptococcus aureus
  11. MRSA
    • MRSA- methcillin resistant staph aureus (community acquired disorder)
    • Tx: Staphcillin, ciprofloxacin, Bactrim, septra
    • Prevention of Staph Aureus:
    • Aseptic Technique
    • Isolation
    • Culture noses of
    • staff
  12. Local Effects of Tumor
    • Pain
    • Obstruction
    • Ulceration
    • Necrosis
  13. Systemic Effects
    • Weight Loss
    • Anemia
    • Infections like Pneumonia
    • Bleeding may Occur
    • Paraneoplastic Syndromes
    • Cachexia-Wasting, weight loss, fatigue
  14. TNM
    • Tumor
    • Node
    • Metastasis
  15. Grade I
    • No atypical cells present
    • Negative
  16. Grade II
    • Atypical cells presents but without malignant features
    • Negative
  17. Grade III
    • Abnormal cells suggestive of malignancy
    • Suspicious
  18. Grade IV
    • Abnormal cells fairly conclusive for malignancy
    • Positive
  19. Grade V
    • Abnormal cells conclusive for malignancy
    • Positive
  20. Staging
    A sytematic of the size of primary tumors and their spread to local and distant sites
  21. Tumor Markers
    • Used for screening, diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring treatment, and recurrance of the disease
    • AKA Protein Markers
  22. Anaplasia
    Cells reverting to immature state (bad cell formation)
  23. Stage 0
    • Carcinoma in situ
    • Early in form
  24. Stage I
    Localized
  25. Stage II
    Locally advanced
  26. Stage III
    Late locally advanced
  27. Stage IV
    Metastisized
  28. Malignant
    • Rapid growth
    • Undifferentiated
    • No Capsule
    • Metastisis
    • Cells not adhesive, infiltrates cells
  29. Benign
    • Differentiated
    • Relativly Slow Growing
    • Tumor does not infiltrate
    • Does not spread
  30. Antigens
    Materials recognized by immune system as something foreign
  31. Antibodies
    Specialized lymphocytes specific for an antigen
  32. Natural Active
    • Pathogens enter body and cause illness
    • Memory-Yes
  33. Artificial Active
    • Person recieves immunization
    • Memory-Yes
  34. Natural Passive
    • Antibody directly from mother to child
    • Memory-No
  35. Artificial Passive
    • Antibodies injected into patient to provide temporary protection
    • Memory-No
  36. AIDS
    Acquired Immunodeficiancy Syndrome
  37. HIV
    Human Immunodeficiancy Virus
  38. Diagnostic test for HIV
    Seroconversion- detection of antibodies in blood
  39. ELISA
    Screening test-False/Positive
  40. Western Blot
    Definitive test(conformation test)
  41. AIDS treatment
    • Antivirals
    • Cocktails
  42. Pathogens
    Living organisms that always cause disease
  43. Types of Defense
    • Skin and Mucus membrane
    • Inflammatory Process
    • Immune System
  44. Portal of Entry?
    • Penetration
    • Direct Contact
    • Ingestion
    • Inhalation
  45. Disease Course
    • Incubation Period
    • Prodromal Stage
    • Acute Stage
    • Convalescent Stage
    • Resolution
  46. Incubation Period
    Entry of organism into body and signs appear
  47. Prodromal Stage
    Patient can feel fatigue, loss of appetite etc.
  48. Acute Stage
    Clinical manifestations reaching their peak (break out contagious 2-3 weeks)
  49. Convalescent Stage
    Gradual recover of health and regain of strength
  50. Resolution
    Illness all gone
  51. Systematic
    Throughout body
  52. Localized
    Body system or organ
  53. Abscess
    localized pocket of infection
  54. Treatment of infectous diseases
    (must remove pathogen)
    • Antibacterials
    • Antivirals
    • Antifungals
    • Antiparasitic
    • Immunotherapy
    • Surgery
  55. Streppococcus pneumoniae
    • vaccine available for chronically ill
    • Diseases:
    • lobar pneumonia
    • Meningitis
    • Acute otitis
    • Treatment: Penicillin G
    • Immunosuppressed are vulnerable
  56. Exacerbation
    Relapse
  57. Treatment of Tumors
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation
    • Surgery
    • Pallative

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