Biology 196 Chapter 5/6 Class 1.5

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Biology 196 Chapter 5/6 Class 1.5
2012-06-10 01:43:28

Summer course 06/08/12
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  1. Motor Proteins
    Specialized proteins that use energy to change shape and move cells or structures within cells. (kinesin)
  2. Microfilaments
    • Fibrous structure made up of actin monomers
    • Cytoskeleton, cell movement, muscle contraction
  3. Actin
    • Protein that makes up microfilaments
    • One of two contractile proteins in muscle
  4. Microvilli
    Projections of epithelial cells (cells lining small intenstine) that increase their surface area
  5. Myosin
    One of two contractile proteins of muscle
  6. Keratin
    Proteins forming intermediate filaments
  7. Intermediate Filaments
    Components of cytoskeleton whose diameters fall between those of the larger microtubules and those of the smaller microfilaments
  8. Microtubules
    Hollow tubes of tubulin dimers. Important in the motion and maintenance of shape of eukaryotic cells
  9. Tubulin
    Protein that polymerizes to form microtubules
  10. Kinesin
    Microtubule motor protein
  11. Cilia
    Short hairlike organelle used for locomotion (unicellular organisms) and moving water and mucus (multicellular organisms)
  12. Flagella
    Long, whiplike appendage that propels cells (locomotion)
  13. Cell Wall
    Encloses plant cells. Important for shape and limits expansion in hypotonic media
  14. Plasmodesmata
    Cytoplasmic strand connecting two adjacent plant cells.
  15. Extracellular Matrix
    Material of heterogeneous composition surrounding cells and performing many functions (adhesion)
  16. Proteoglycans
    • Glycoprotein containing a protein core with attached long, linear carbohydrate chains
    • (more CHO(sugar side chains) than protein)
  17. Collagen
    Fibrous protein found in bone and connective tissue
  18. Tight Junctions
    • Junction between epithelial cells in which there is no gap between adjacent cells
    • Materials move between cell layers not around
  19. Desmosomes
    • Adhering junction between animal cells
    • Hold cells like “wed rivets”
    • Use cytoskeleton for mechanical stability
    • Hold cells together; materials can move around
    • Help cells bend in a tissue layer
  20. Gap Junctions
    Allow chemical substances or electrical signals to pass from cell to cell
  21. Selectively Permeable
    Allowing certain substances to pass through while other substances are excluded
  22. Peripheral Proteins
    Not embedded in membrane, loosely attached, connected to other membrane proteins
  23. Integral Proteins
    Penetrate the hydrophobic core
  24. Transmembrane Proteins
    Integral membrane protein that spans the phospholipid bilayer
  25. Fluid Mosaic Model
    • Molecular model for the structure of biological membranes consisting of a fluid phosphollipid bilayer
    • “potatoes in sea of peas” polar phospholipid heads (peas) large membrane proteins (potatoes)
  26. Transporter Proteins
    Integral protein extending all the way through the phospholipid bilayer
  27. Diffusion
    Random movement of molecules resulting in even distribution of particles when no barriers are present
  28. Passive Transport
    Diffusion across a membrane, no energy required
  29. Osmosis
    • Movement of water across a differentially permeable membrane
    • One region to another where water potential is more negative
  30. Isotonic
    Having the same solute concentration
  31. Hypertonic
    Having greater solute concentration in cell (hypotonic environment)
  32. Hypotonic
    Having lesser solute concentration in cell (hypertonic environment)
  33. Osmoregulation
    Regulation of the chemical composition of the body fluids of an organism
  34. Facilitated Diffusion
    Passive movement through a membrane involving specific carrier protein
  35. Channel Proteins
    Integral membrane protein that forms aqueous passageway across the membrane
  36. Gated Channels
    • Membrane protein that changes its 3D shape, ion conductance, in response to stimulus
    • Open allows specific ions to move across membrane
  37. Active Transport
    • Energy-dependent transport of substance across membrane against concentration gradient
    • Low concentration-high concentration
  38. Uniporter
    Membrane transport protein carrying single substance in one direction
  39. Symporter
    Membrane transport protein that carries two substances in same direction
  40. Antiporter
    Membrane transport protein that moves one substance in one direction and another in the other direction
  41. Primary Active Transport
    Active transport in which ATP is hydrolyzed, energy required to transport an ion or molecule against its concentration gradient
  42. Secondary Active Transport
    Active transport without ATP , transport is coupled to ion diffusion down a concentration gradient established by primary active transport
  43. Endocytosis
    Process by which liquids or solid particles are taken up by cell through invagination of the plasma membrane (get in)
  44. Exocytosis
    Process by which a vesicle within a cell fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to outside (get out)
  45. Phagocytosis
    Endocytosis by a cell of another cell or large particle
  46. Pinocytosis
    Endocytosis by cell of liquid containing dissolved substances
  47. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
    Endocytosis initiated by macromolecular binding to specific membrane receptor