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an alternative form of a gene.
determines the variation of a trait (i.e. blue eyes vs brown eyes)
2 copies of the same allele
1 copy of one allele and 1 copy of a different allele
allele that shows up regardless if you have 1 or 2 copies
allele that can only be seen if there are 2 of them
specific alleles that an individual has
"what it is"
the physical appearance of the "allele"
"what it looks like"
family tree of a trait expression
determination of ancestors' genotype
person who has the gene but does NOT exhibit the trait
the dominant allele in a heterozygous person completely masks the recessive allele
both alleles are expressed in a heterozygous individual
i.e. blood type ABO
heterozygous individual is a blend of 2 genes
i.e. Red Flower and White Flower make a Pink Flower
one gene having many effects
3 or more alleles form a particular gene
i.e. the alleles governing the ABO blood types
more than one gene controlling a single trait
i.e. height, skin color, eye color
genes carried on the x chromosome
have no corresponding allele on the y chromosome
will be expressed in a male, and in a female (if she is homozygous)
pertaining to chromosomes, the loss of a nucleotide or segment of a chromosome
pertaining to chromosomes, the duplication of a region of a chromosome that often results from fusion of a fragment from a homologous chromosome
a method of prenatal testing for genetic problems in a fetus in which amniotic fluid is withdrawn through a needle so that the fluid can be tested biochemicallyand the cells can be cultured and examined for genetic abnormalities
Chorionic Villi Sampling (CVS)
a procedure for screening for genetic defects of a fetus by removing a piece of chorionic villi and examining the cells for genetic abnormalities
Law of Segregation
- During meiosis homologous pairs split
- 1 egg ends up with 1 set of alleles
- another egg could end up with another set of alleles
- i.e. any gamete is equally likely to have any allele (any combo is equally possible)
Every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes; therefore, each person has (#?) alleles for each trait.
utilizes 2 individuals to determine the inheritance pattern of a Single trait