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After Beethoven, the classical line of symphonic development continued with what 3 composers in the 19th century?
For which two orchestral instruments did Schubert use separate lines (staves) from the onset of his symphonic output?
cello and bass
Which orchestral section is the primary medium for the essential thematic material in Schubert’s “Unfinished” (Symphony No. 8)?
Woodwinds! (not strings)
Schubert's Life dates?
Mendelssohn's Life dates?
Schumann's life dates?
What are the names of Mendelssohn's Symphonies 2,3,4,and 5?
- 2- Lobgesang
- 3- Scottish
- 5- Reformation
How does Schubert use keys unusually in his Symphony's1st movements?
- 3 key expositions
- 3rd relationships
- recaps in the subdominant (not dom.)
- minor keys- does not go to parallel major for 2nd theme
Keys of Schumann's 4 Symphonies in order?
Bb, C, Eb, d minor
Keys of Schubert's 8 Symphonies in order?
D, Bb, D, cm, Bb, C, C, b
Keys of Mendelsohn's 5 symphonies in order?
cm, Bb, am, A, dm
List 8 symphonic innovations Schumann introduced in his symphonies.
Cyclic- Retrieves themes in later movements (cyclical themes -this idea begins motivically with Beethoven's 5th.)New balance of themes- return of intro theme in recap and through to unify.
- More continuous symphonies - either a very short pause
- or no break at all for almost half of all his movements.
- Sonata forms often leave out the development or the
- recap or combines both into one section.
Key use: 3 key exposition in sonata form and subdominant recap. 3 key symphony.Difficult orchestral keys (b minor, etc). In minor key, 2nd theme returns in major.
Creative orchestration (exploits timbre of instruments as never before- trombone in slow movement)
Uses reptition as developmental device.
Greater emphasis on woodwinds than ever before (also increased attention to brass)
Modified Scherzo form (rondo)
Explain problems with numbering of Schubert's Symphonies.
- There are only 8 complete symphonies.
- The Great C Major may be considered number 7 or 9 based on inclomplete sketches of 2 symphonies discovered.
- The "Unfinished" (No. 8 in b minor) is sometimes labeled as #7. It only contains 2 movement.
- It is 7th in order, but titled no. 8.
- Fragments of a 10th symphony in DM exist.
- All of this stems from symphonies partially completed after #6 (Little C Major) and the fact that the Great CM and Unifinished were both written in 1828 with the Great being worked on after the Unifinished (which was never complete).
How are Schubert's Symphonies catalogued?
D numbers for Otto Erich Deutsch
Schubert, Symphony No.8, b mino: name, year, importance.
- Important for its lyricism
- WWs become the primary purveyors of thematic material .
- Scores the cello and bass separately
- The formal innovation is significant- 1st theme is
- lyrical as opposed to rhythmic. All of his themes are lyrical.
- Arrival of a lyrically based sonata form is seen in this work.
Which Mendelssohn Symphonies combine cantata for with that of symphony?
- 2- Lobgesang (Now thank we...)
- 5- Reformation (Eine feste Burg...)
Which Lutheran Chorale is used in Mendelssohn Symphony No. 5?
Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott
How did Mendelssohn use harmonies that was new and unusual?
- added a 6th above V7 chord (V13)
- more focus on 2nd inversion chords
- parallel harmonies (consecutive minor schords)
Schumann Symphony No. 1: key, date, name.
Which 2 Schumann Symphonies have names?
- 1- Spring (in Bb)
- 3- Rhenish (in Eb)