Biological Molecules

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Author:
sarahnym
ID:
158033
Filename:
Biological Molecules
Updated:
2012-06-10 12:01:44
Tags:
Lipids
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Description:
Biological Molecules - Lipids
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  1. LIPIDS
    • soluble in non-polar organic solvents
    • insoluble in water
    • fats (solid at 20oC)
    • oils (liquid at 20oC)
    • Triglycerides are non-polar and are thus relatively insoluble in water.
    • Have lower density than water
  2. FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS
    • Energy store as they occupy less volume per unit mass than carbohydrates. Fats yield more energy due to chemical energy in C-C & C-H bonds. Energy released by oxidation of fatty acid chains
    • compact & insoluble in water
    • Easily hydrolysed into fatty acids and glycerol
    • Oxidised to give metabolic water
    • Thermal insulation
    • Buoyancy in marine mammals
    • Protection against mechanical damage
    • Reduction of water loss
  3. STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO FUNCTION OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    • 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acid chains, 1 phosphoric acid group
    • Formation of cell membrance
    • Formation of layer around neurons
    • Regulates type of molecules entering/leaving the cell, as hydrophobic tail allows only lipid-soluble/non-polar molecules through
  4. CHOLESTROL
    • steroid found in cell membranes, transported in blood plasma
    • amphipathic molecule
    • Regulates fluidity of cell membranes
    • Formation of bile salts
    • Precursor molecule for synthesis of vitamin D, sex hormones and hormones of adrenal cortex

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