Chapter 2

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  1. It is wise to eat the same foods every day.

    False, your diet will lack vaiety and probably will nto supply all the nutrients your body needs

    Milk is such a perfect food that it alone can provide all the nutrients a person needs.

    False, good in calcium and protein but contains very small amounts of iron and other essential nutrients.

    Cookies cannot be included in a healthy diet.

    False, any food can fit into a healthy eating plat. It's the total diet not individual foods that can either be good or bad for health.

    When it comes to nutrients, more is always better.

    False, Too much or too little of a nutrient is often equally harmful.

    A person's energy needs are based on his or her age, gender and physical activity levels.


    From a nutritional standpoint there is nothing wrong with grazing on snacks all day, provided the snacks meet nutrietional neeeds without supplying too many calories.


    If you don't meet your recommended intake for a nutrient every day you will ened up with a deficiency of that nutrient.


    If a food label claims that a product is low fat, you can believe it.


    Most dieticians encourage people to think of their diets in terms of the four basic food groups.

    False, dieticians today encourage people to think about eating from the five food groups.

    According to the government people should try to eat at least 2 cups of fruit and 2 1/2 coups of veggies totaling 8 servings a day.

  2. ABC's of Eating for Health:
    • Adequacy
    • Balance
    • Calorie control
    • Moderation
    • Variety
  3. A diet that provides all of the essential nutrients, fiber and energy (calories) in amounts sufficient to maintain health.
  4. A diet that provides a number of types of foods in harmony with one another, sch that food srich in one nutrient do not crowd out the diet foods that are rich in another nutrient.

    To avoid overemphasis on any food type or nutrient at the expense of another.
  5. Control of consumption of energy (calories) a feature of a sound diet plan.

    To supply the amount of energy you need to maintain desirable weight (not more, not less)
    Calorie control
  6. The attribute of a diet that provides no unwanted constituent in excess.

    To avoid excess amounts of unwanted constituents, such as fat, salt, or sugar.
  7. A feature of a diet in which different foods are used for the same purposes on different occasions, the opposite of monotony.

    To consume different foods rather than eating the same meals day after day.
  8. Refers to a food that supplies large amounts of nutrients relative to the number of calories it contains. The higher the level of nutrients and the fewer the number of calories the more nutrient dense the food is.
    Nutrient dense.

    (Potato chips are not nutrient dense, spinach is)
  9. A set of reference values for energy and nutrients that can be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people, not for ill people.
    DRI - Dietary Reference Intakes
  10. The DRI aim to prevent nutrient deficiencies in a population as well as reduce risk for chronic diseases such and heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis.
  11. The minimum amount of a nutrient that will prevent the development of deficiency symptoms. Requirements differ from the RDA and AI which include a substantial margin of safety to cover the requirements of different individuals.
  12. The amount of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the requirement for the nutrient in half of the people of a specific age and gender.
    Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
  13. The average daily amount of a nutrient ath is sufficient to meet the nutrient needs of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals of a specific age and gender.
    Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
  14. We use the EAR (estimated average requirement) to set the RDA (recommended dietary allowance)
  15. The average amount of a nutrient that appears to be adequate for individuals when there is not suffcient scientific research to calculate an RDA.
    Adequate Intake (AI)
  16. The maximum amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to pose any risk of adverse health effects to most healthy people.
    Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
  17. The UL exceeds the RDA and is not intended to be a recommended level of intake.
    The need to set a UL is the result of more and more people using large doses of nutrient supplements and the increasing availability of fortified foods.
  18. Foods to which nutrients have been ADDED, either bc they were not already present or bc they were present in insignificant amounts; foods to which manufacturers have added 10% or more of the daily value for a particular nutrient.
    Fortified foods
  19. Example of fortified foods:
    • Margarine with added Vit A
    • Milk with added Vit D
    • Certain brands of orange juice with added calcium
    • Breakfast cereal with added nutrients and nonnutrients
  20. People vary in the amount of a given nutrient they need.
    The challenge of the DRI is to determine the best amount to recommend for everybody.
  21. The DRI report on energy and the energy nutrients provides guidelines for the USA regarding the consumption of energy, carbs, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, and protein

    It includes guidelines for physical activity as well.

    To meet the body's daily energy and nutritional needs while minimizing risk for chronic disease, consumption of the energy nutritrients.
  22. To reduce the risk of a chronic disease adults and children should spend how long doing physical activity?
    At least 1 hour every day doing a moderately intense physical activity (such as brisk walking) or 20-30 minutes 4-7 days per week in a high intensity activity (running or cycling)
  23. Daily energy expenditure can be cumulative so the 60 minutes need not be done all at once.
    Daily activities such as climbing the stairs at school or the office, housecleaning or walking to your destination from a distant parkinng spot can be combined with moderate physical activites such as brisk walking.
  24. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide science based advice to promote health and to reduce risk for chornic diseaes through diet and physical activity.
    They emphasize variety, calorie control, moderation and food safety, they also emphasize physical activity because it increases energy expenditure and helps in weight control.
  25. To avoid microbial foodborne illnes:
    • Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruit and veggies.
    • Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed, to avoid spreading bacteria to other foods.
    • Separate raw, cooked and ready to eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods.
    • Cook foods to a safe internal temperature.
    • Chill perishable food promptly and defrost foods properly.
    • Avoid unpasteurized milk or any products made from it; avoid raw or undercooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs; raw or undercooked meat and poulty, unpasteurized juices, and raw sprouts.
  26. Eating small amounts of food at intervals throughout the day rather than or in addition to eating regular meals.
  27. Smart snacking:
    • Low fat yogurt with 1/2 cup cereal
    • Fruit and yogurt smoothies
    • Half a bag with 1 tblspoon peanut butter
    • 1 ounce serving trail mix
    • 1 cup cereal with low fat or skim/soy milk
    • Small handful or tortilla chips with salso or low fat bean dip
    • Fruit and cheese appoles or grapes with low fat american, cheddar or provolone cheese
    • 1-2 tblspoons peanut butter on an apple, celery or carrot
    • 1 piece of whole fruit
    • 1/2 cup fruit salad
  28. Conditions that may be aggravated by modern lifestyles that include too little exercise, poor diets, and excessive drinking and smoking. AKA Diseases of Affluence
    Lifestyle diseases
  29. The goal of the Dietary Guidelines is to help people decrease their risk of some forms of cancer, heart disease, obesity, diabetes, HTN, stroke, osteoporosis, and liver disease.
  30. The Dietary Guidelines the pyramid recommends engaging in at least 30 min or moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days of the week to reduce the risk of chronic disease
    Up to 60 minutes of activity to manage body weight
    At least 60-90 minutes of physical activity while not exceeding caloric intake requirements to sustain weight loss.
  31. A diet planning tool such as MyPyramid that groups foods according to similar origin and nutrient content and then specifies the amoutn of food a person should eat from each group.
    food group plan
  32. The standard amount of food used as a reference to give advice regarding how much to eat (such as 1 cup serving of milk)
  33. Variety:
    Eat foods from all food groups and subgroups. No one food or no single food group provides all essential nutrients in amounts necessary for good health.
  34. Proportionality:
    The pyramid shows the proportions of foods that should make up a healthful diet. Eat more of some foods. Eat more of some foods (fruit, veggies, whole grains) and eat less of others.
  35. Moderation:
    Use foods that are rich in solid fats and added sugars limitedly.
  36. Represents the average dietary energy intake that will maintain energy balance in a healthy person of a given gender, age, weight, height and physical activity level.
    Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
  37. If you consistently build your diet by choosing mostly nutrient-dense foods that are low in solid fat and added sugars you may be able to meet your nutrient needs without using your full calorie allowance. If so, you may have what is called a........
    discretionary calorie allowance.
  38. Discretionary Calorie Allowance is:
    The balance of calories remaining in a person's energy allowance, after accounting for the number of calories needed to meet recommended nutrient intakes through consumption of nutrient dense foods in low fat or no added sugar forms. The calories assigned as discretionary may be used to increase intake from these groups that are higher in fat or with added sugars; to add oils, solid fats, or sugars to foods or beverages; or to consume alcohol.
  39. 1 fist clenched =
    8 ounces
  40. Two hands cupped =
    1 cup
  41. One hand cupped =
    1/2 cup
  42. Palm of hand =
    3 ounces
  43. Two thumbs together =
    1 tbsp
  44. In 1990 Congress passed one of the most important pieces of legislation of the 20th century known as:
    Nutrition Labeling and Education Act
  45. By law, all labels must contain the following:
    • Name of food aka statement of identity
    • Name of manufacturer, packer, or distributor as well as the firms city, state and zip code.
    • Net quantity, which tells you how much food is in the container so that you can compare prices. Net quantity has to be stated in both inch or pound units and metric units.
  46. A listing of the ingredients in a food with items listed in descending order by weight. All food labels are required to bear an ingredients list.
    1st ingredient listed makes up the largest proportion.
  47. A detailed breakdown of the nutritional content of a serving of a food that must appear on virtually all packaged foods sold in the US.
    Nutrition Facts panel
  48. A container with less than 40 square inches of surface area for nutrition labeling (tuna can) is allowed to present fewer facts.
  49. The Nutrition Facts panel must indicate the amount of certain mandatory nutrients that one serving of the food contains.
  50. The nutrient information that must appear on the Nutrition Facts Panel includes:
    • Calories
    • Calories from fat
    • Total Fat
    • Saturated Fat
    • Trans Fat
    • Cholesterol
    • Sodium
    • Total Carbohydrate
    • Dietary Fiber
    • Sugars
    • Protein
    • Vit A
    • Vit C
    • Calcium
    • Iron
    • (in that order)
  51. The amount of fat, sodium, fiber, protein, carbs that health expercts say should make up a healthy diet. The % Daily Values that appear on food labels tell you the percentage of a nutrient that s erving of the food contributes to a healthy diet.
    Daily Value
  52. Nonnutritive substances in plants that possess health protective benefits.
  53. Vitamins and minerals that protect other compounds from damaging reactions involving oxygen by themselves reacting with oxygen. The antioxiant nutrients are Vit C, E and beta carotene. The mineral selenium also has a role in antioxidant reactions in the body
    Antioxidant Nutrients
  54. Claims such as "low fat" and "low calorie" used on food labels to help consumers who don't want to scrutinize the nutrition facts panel get an idea of a food's nutritional profile. These claims must adhere to specific definitions set forth by the Food and Drug Administration.
    Nutrient Content Claims
  55. A statement on the food label linking the nutritional profile of a food to a reduced risk of a particular disease such as osteoporosis or cancner.
    Manufacturers must adhere to strict government guidelines when making such claims.
    Health Claim
  56. A serving of food dubbed low fat must contain no more than __ grams of fat.
  57. An item dubbed low calorie may provide no more than __ calories per serving.
  58. Lists of foods with portion sizes specified. The foods on a single list are similar with respect to nutrient and calorie content and thus can be mixed and matched in the diet.
    Exchange lists
  59. Exchange lists are useful for people who are following calorie controlled diets to lose weight.
    For instance you might strive to eat two servings of fruit each day and then exchange list shows you that 1/2 cup of orange juice, a small banana, or a small apple each counts as a fruit.
  60. Mediterranean Food Guide Pyramid:
    Red meat (a few times per month) at the top of the pyramid

    Foods daily: olive oil*, beans, legumes and nuts*

    Foods a few times per week: sweets, eggs, poultry, fish

    Daily physical activity is at the base of the pyramid.

    Daily beverage recommendations: 6 glasses of water
  61. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans adults are advised to exercise at least 30 min a day to reduce the risk of chronic disease; 60 min daily to prevent weight gain; up to 90 min daily if they have lost weight and want to keep it off.
  62. The % daily value for nutrients listed on food labels is based on what a person who is consuming:
    2,000 calories
  63. Which of the following is true about Dietary Reference Intake?
    They are based on the latest scientific research regarding diet and health AND they are recommendations that apply to average daily intakes.
  64. Which of the following is true about food labeling?
    Food labels list their ingredients in order of amount by weight with the ingredient constituting the greatest amount listed first.
  65. A statement linking the nutritional profile of a food to a reduced risk of a particular disease is known as:
    Health claim
  66. According to the MyPyramid food guide, added fats and sugars are counted as:
    Discretionary calories?
  67. Nutrient dense foods are foods that:
    Are rich in nutrients but relatively low in calories.
  68. Phytochemicals are:
    Chemicals in plants that possess health protective benefits.
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Chapter 2
Chapter 2
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