When should you start taking mammograms, and how often?
At the age 40, and yearly
How often should a woman get a clinical breast exam?
When b/t 20-30 y/o, every 3 yrs. When 40 or more, every year.
When should women start breast self-exams?
In their 20s
When should men and women start screening for colon CA, which includes sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, barium enema, or CT scan and annual fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT)?
In their 50s
When should women start screening for cervical cancer?
3 years after they start sexual intercourse, but no later than 21 y/o
How often should women test for cervical cancer?
Annually, with the Pap test; or every 2 yrs, with the new liquid-based Pap test. However, after 70 y/o, w/normal results, women can stop
When should men start screening for prostate cancer? What if they have a family hx of prostate CA, or what if they're black?
At age of 50. If family hx or black, start at 45 y/o.
What is the standard when screening for prostate cancer?
PSA blood test with or w/o digital rectal exam
What is one sign that the cancer will not relapse?
Pt is cancer free for 5 yrs
Define the following responses to tx: complete, partial, stable, progression
Complete: No evidence of CA for at least 1 month
Partial: > / = 50% decrease of tumor size
Stable: <25% decrease or increase in tumor size
Progression: > / = 25% tumor growth or new tumor growth
In general, how do you tx CA?
Surgery --> Chemotherapy
Neoadjuvant (or induction) therapy: used prior to start of primary tx regimen to shrink tumor (i.e., radiation)
Adjuvant therapy: given after primary therapy to get rid of residual disease (i.e., radiation, hormone tx)
Can you use chemo in pregnancy and breastfeeding?
No, you shouldn't - tell couples to use contraceptives
How is chemo dose? What equation is used?
BSA=0.007184 x [weight (kg)^0.425] x [height (cm)^0.725]
Use actual wt, or AdjBW if obese
What is the MOA of alkylators? What are some alkylators?