the biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior.
the view that certain human behaviors are innate and due to evolutionary programming.
the view that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs.
the idea that the body monitors and maintains internal states, such as body temperature and energy supplies, at relatively constant levels; in general, the tendency to reach or maintain equilibrium.
a need or internal motivational state that activates behavior to reduce the need and restore homeostasis.
the view that people are motivated by the pull of external goals, such as rewards.
the view that people are motivated to maintain a level of arousal that is optimal-neither too high nor too low.
the degree to which an individual is motivated to experience high levels of sensory and physical arousal associated with varied and novel activities.
humanistic theories of motivation
the view that emphasizes the importance of psychological and cognitive factors in motivation, especially the notion that people are motivated to realize their personal potential.
simple sugar that provides energy and is primarily produced by the conversion of carbohydrates and fats; commonly called blood sugar.
hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood levels of glucose and signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
when the body is at rest, the rate at which it uses energy for vital functions, such as heartbeat and respiration.
body fat that is the main source of stored, or reserve, energy.
the long-term matching of food intake to energy expenditure.
hormone manufactured primarily by the stomach that stimulates appetite and the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.
positive incentive value
in eating behavior, the anticipated pleasure of consuming a particular food; in general, the expectation of pleasure or satisfaction in performing a particular behavior.
in eating behavior, the feeling of fullness and diminished desire to eat that accompanies eating a meal; in general, the sensation of having an appetite or desire fully or excessively satisfied.
hormone secreted primarily by the small intestine that promotes satiation; also found in the brain.
the reduced desire to continue consuming a particular food.
hormone produced by fat cells that signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
neuropeptide Y (NPY)
neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain.
theory that proposes that humans and other animals have a natural or optimal body weight, called the set-point weight, that the body defends from becoming higher or lower by regulating feelings of hunger and body metabolism.
settling-point models of weight regulation
general model of weight regulation suggesting that body weight settles, or stabilizes, around the point at which there is balance between the factors influencing energy intake and energy expenditure.
body mass index (BMI)
a numerical scale indicating adult height in relation to weight; calculated as (703 x weight in pounds)/(height in inches)square.
condition characterized by excessive body fat and a body mass index equal to or greater than 30.0.
cafeteria diet effect
the tendency to eat more when a wide variety of palatable foods is available.
a condition in which higher-than-normal blood levels of the hormone leptin do not produce the expected physiological response.
repeated cycles of dieting, weight loss, and weight regain; also called yo-yo dieting.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's hierarchical division of motivation into levels that progress from basic physical needs to psychological needs to self-fulfillment needs.
defined by Maslow as a person's "full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, and potentialities."
self-determination theory (SDT)
Edward Deci and Richard Ryan's theory that optimal human functioning can occur only if the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.
the desire to engage in tasks that are inherently satisfying and enjoyable, novel, or optimally challenging; the desire to do something for its own sake.
external factors or influences on behavior, such as rewards, consequences, or social expectations.
the desire to direct your behavior toward demonstrating competence and exercising control in a situation.
the desire to direct your behavior toward excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some task.
Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
a projective test developed by Henry Murray and his colleagues that involves creating stories about ambiguous scenes that can be interpreted in a variety of ways.
a complex psychological state that involves subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response.
the capacity to understand and manage your own emotional experiences and to perceive, comprehend, and respond appropriately to the emotional responses of others.
the most fundamental set of emotional categories, which are biologically innate, evolutionarily determined, and culturally universal.
emotion dimension reflecting the degree to which emotions involve a relationship with another person or other people.
almond-shaped cluster of neurons in the brain's temporal lobe, involved in memory and emotional responses, especially fear.
social and cultural regulations governing emotional expression, especially facial expressions.
the attribution of human traits, motives,emotions, or behaviors to nonhuman animals or inanimate objects.
James-Lange theory of emotion
the theory that emotions arise from the perception of body changes.
facial feedback hypothesis
the view that expressing a specific emotion, especially facially, causes the subjective experience of that emotion.
two-factor theory of emotion
Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is the interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal.
cognitive appraisal theory of emotion
the theory that emotional responses are triggered by a cognitive evaluation.
the degree to which a person is convinced of his or her ability to effectively meet the demands of a particular situation.