Psychology Definitions

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Psychology Definitions
2010-04-23 04:17:28

Chapter 8
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  1. motivation
    the biological, emotional, cognitive, or social forces that activate and direct behavior.
  2. instinct theories
    the view that certain human behaviors are innate and due to evolutionary programming.
  3. drive theories
    the view that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs.
  4. homeostasis
    the idea that the body monitors and maintains internal states, such as body temperature and energy supplies, at relatively constant levels; in general, the tendency to reach or maintain equilibrium.
  5. drive
    a need or internal motivational state that activates behavior to reduce the need and restore homeostasis.
  6. incentive theories
    the view that people are motivated by the pull of external goals, such as rewards.
  7. arousal theory
    the view that people are motivated to maintain a level of arousal that is optimal-neither too high nor too low.
  8. sensation seeking
    the degree to which an individual is motivated to experience high levels of sensory and physical arousal associated with varied and novel activities.
  9. humanistic theories of motivation
    the view that emphasizes the importance of psychological and cognitive factors in motivation, especially the notion that people are motivated to realize their personal potential.
  10. glucose
    simple sugar that provides energy and is primarily produced by the conversion of carbohydrates and fats; commonly called blood sugar.
  11. insulin
    hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood levels of glucose and signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
  12. basal metabolic rate (BMR)
    when the body is at rest, the rate at which it uses energy for vital functions, such as heartbeat and respiration.
  13. adipose tissue
    body fat that is the main source of stored, or reserve, energy.
  14. energy homeostasis
    the long-term matching of food intake to energy expenditure.
  15. ghrelin
    hormone manufactured primarily by the stomach that stimulates appetite and the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.
  16. positive incentive value
    in eating behavior, the anticipated pleasure of consuming a particular food; in general, the expectation of pleasure or satisfaction in performing a particular behavior.
  17. satiation
    in eating behavior, the feeling of fullness and diminished desire to eat that accompanies eating a meal; in general, the sensation of having an appetite or desire fully or excessively satisfied.
  18. cholecystokinin (CCK)
    hormone secreted primarily by the small intestine that promotes satiation; also found in the brain.
  19. sensory-specific satiety
    the reduced desire to continue consuming a particular food.
  20. leptin
    hormone produced by fat cells that signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating behavior.
  21. neuropeptide Y (NPY)
    neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain.
  22. set-point theory
    theory that proposes that humans and other animals have a natural or optimal body weight, called the set-point weight, that the body defends from becoming higher or lower by regulating feelings of hunger and body metabolism.
  23. settling-point models of weight regulation
    general model of weight regulation suggesting that body weight settles, or stabilizes, around the point at which there is balance between the factors influencing energy intake and energy expenditure.
  24. body mass index (BMI)
    a numerical scale indicating adult height in relation to weight; calculated as (703 x weight in pounds)/(height in inches)square.
  25. obese
    condition characterized by excessive body fat and a body mass index equal to or greater than 30.0.
  26. cafeteria diet effect
    the tendency to eat more when a wide variety of palatable foods is available.
  27. leptin resistance
    a condition in which higher-than-normal blood levels of the hormone leptin do not produce the expected physiological response.
  28. weight cycling
    repeated cycles of dieting, weight loss, and weight regain; also called yo-yo dieting.
  29. hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's hierarchical division of motivation into levels that progress from basic physical needs to psychological needs to self-fulfillment needs.
  30. self-actualization
    defined by Maslow as a person's "full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, and potentialities."
  31. self-determination theory (SDT)
    Edward Deci and Richard Ryan's theory that optimal human functioning can occur only if the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.
  32. intrinsic motivation
    the desire to engage in tasks that are inherently satisfying and enjoyable, novel, or optimally challenging; the desire to do something for its own sake.
  33. extrinsic motivation
    external factors or influences on behavior, such as rewards, consequences, or social expectations.
  34. competence motivation
    the desire to direct your behavior toward demonstrating competence and exercising control in a situation.
  35. achievement motivation
    the desire to direct your behavior toward excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some task.
  36. Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
    a projective test developed by Henry Murray and his colleagues that involves creating stories about ambiguous scenes that can be interpreted in a variety of ways.
  37. emotion
    a complex psychological state that involves subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response.
  38. emotional intelligence
    the capacity to understand and manage your own emotional experiences and to perceive, comprehend, and respond appropriately to the emotional responses of others.
  39. basic emotions
    the most fundamental set of emotional categories, which are biologically innate, evolutionarily determined, and culturally universal.
  40. interpersonal engagement
    emotion dimension reflecting the degree to which emotions involve a relationship with another person or other people.
  41. amygdala
    almond-shaped cluster of neurons in the brain's temporal lobe, involved in memory and emotional responses, especially fear.
  42. display rules
    social and cultural regulations governing emotional expression, especially facial expressions.
  43. anthropomorphism
    the attribution of human traits, motives,emotions, or behaviors to nonhuman animals or inanimate objects.
  44. James-Lange theory of emotion
    the theory that emotions arise from the perception of body changes.
  45. facial feedback hypothesis
    the view that expressing a specific emotion, especially facially, causes the subjective experience of that emotion.
  46. two-factor theory of emotion
    Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is the interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal.
  47. cognitive appraisal theory of emotion
    the theory that emotional responses are triggered by a cognitive evaluation.
  48. self-efficacy
    the degree to which a person is convinced of his or her ability to effectively meet the demands of a particular situation.