SI Chapter 7

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dconhokie
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158061
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SI Chapter 7
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2012-06-10 23:43:07
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SI CHapter 7
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  1. research problem
    a broad statement that begins to focus the direction of a study.
  2. topic
    the research process begins when a researcher identifies a specific topic.
  3. clinical theory
    allows us to explain relationships and to predict outcomes based on given information; however theories are only applicable to the extent that they can be empirically confirmed.
  4. replication of a study
    is a useful strategy to correct for design limitations or to examine outcomes with different populations.
  5. research question
    should be: (1) important; (2) answerable; and (3) feasable for study.
  6. research question - Importance, the "So What?" Test
    a researcher should believe that the effort is worthy of investigation, that is, it should generate new information that will further the professions's knowledge base.
  7. research question - Answerable
    the research problem should always incorporate variables that can be defined and measured.
  8. research question - Feasible
    the researcher must have the necessary skill, background and resources to be abe to complete the project properly.
  9. target population
    refers to a group of individuals to which the results of the study will apply.
  10. research rationale
    once the research question has been defined, a full review of the literature will establish the background for the research question. This foundation will clarify the research rationale that will support the research question, guide decisions in designing the study, and most importantly, provide the basis for interpreting results.
  11. variables
    is a property that can differentiate members of a group or set.
  12. factor
    variables represent a concept, or factor, that can have more than one value. A factor becomes a variable by virtue of how it is used in a study.
  13. independent variable
    it is a condition, intervention, or characteristic that will predict or cause a given outcome.
  14. dependent variable
    the outcome variable, which is a response or effect that is presumed to vary depending on the independent variable.
  15. levels
    in comparative studies, independent variables are given "values" called levels. The levels represent groups or conditions that will be compared.
  16. operational definition
    defines a variable according to its unique meaning within a study. It should be sufficiently detailed so that another researcher could replicate the procedure or condition.
  17. conceptual definition
    is the dictionary definition, the one that describes the variable in general terms, without specific reference to its methodological use in a study.
  18. research objectives
    the culmination of all the reasoning and reading that has gone before to determine the target population, describe the research rationale and define the research variables. The objectives may be presented as hypotheses, specific aims, the purpose of the research or the research objectives.
  19. specific aims (or guiding questions)
    allows the researcher to organize data and discuss findings in a meaningful way. Descriptive studies are usually based on specific aims or guiiding questions.
  20. hypothesis
    a declarative statement that predicts the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, specifying the population that will be studies.
  21. research hypothesis
    occurs following identification of the problem, a review of relevant literature and final conceptualization of the research variables.
  22. deductive hypotheses
    based on a theoretical premise, allowing the clinician to predict what outcomes would be expected under a given set of conditions.
  23. inductive hypotheses
    are based on trends, regularities, patterns, or relationships that are observed in clinical practice.
  24. research hypothesis
    states the researcher's true expectation of results, guiding the interpretation of outcomes and conclusions.
  25. nul hypothesis
    te statistical hypothesis that will always express no difference or no relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
  26. nondirectional hypotheses
    hypotheses that do not predict a direction of change.
  27. directional hypotheses
    not only describe the relationship between variables in terms of a difference, but they also assign a direction to that difference.
  28. simple hypothesis
    includes one independent variable and one deendent variable.
  29. complex hypothesis
    contains mor ehtan one independent and dependent variable.
  30. assumptions
    concepts or principles that are assumed to be true, based on documented evidence of accepted theoretical premises.
  31. primary source
    is a report or document provided directly by the person who authored it.
  32. secondary source
    is a description or review of one or more studiespresented by someone other than the original author.

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