a broad statement that begins to focus the direction of a study.
the research process begins when a researcher identifies a specific topic.
allows us to explain relationships and to predict outcomes based on given information; however theories are only applicable to the extent that they can be empirically confirmed.
replication of a study
is a useful strategy to correct for design limitations or to examine outcomes with different populations.
should be: (1) important; (2) answerable; and (3) feasable for study.
research question - Importance, the "So What?" Test
a researcher should believe that the effort is worthy of investigation, that is, it should generate new information that will further the professions's knowledge base.
research question - Answerable
the research problem should always incorporate variables that can be defined and measured.
research question - Feasible
the researcher must have the necessary skill, background and resources to be abe to complete the project properly.
refers to a group of individuals to which the results of the study will apply.
once the research question has been defined, a full review of the literature will establish the background for the research question. This foundation will clarify the research rationale that will support the research question, guide decisions in designing the study, and most importantly, provide the basis for interpreting results.
is a property that can differentiate members of a group or set.
variables represent a concept, or factor, that can have more than one value. A factor becomes a variable by virtue of how it is used in a study.
it is a condition, intervention, or characteristic that will predict or cause a given outcome.
the outcome variable, which is a response or effect that is presumed to vary depending on the independent variable.
in comparative studies, independent variables are given "values" called levels. The levels represent groups or conditions that will be compared.
defines a variable according to its unique meaning within a study. It should be sufficiently detailed so that another researcher could replicate the procedure or condition.
is the dictionary definition, the one that describes the variable in general terms, without specific reference to its methodological use in a study.
the culmination of all the reasoning and reading that has gone before to determine the target population, describe the research rationale and define the research variables. The objectives may be presented as hypotheses, specific aims, the purpose of the research or the research objectives.
specific aims (or guiding questions)
allows the researcher to organize data and discuss findings in a meaningful way. Descriptive studies are usually based on specific aims or guiiding questions.
a declarative statement that predicts the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, specifying the population that will be studies.
occurs following identification of the problem, a review of relevant literature and final conceptualization of the research variables.
based on a theoretical premise, allowing the clinician to predict what outcomes would be expected under a given set of conditions.
are based on trends, regularities, patterns, or relationships that are observed in clinical practice.
states the researcher's true expectation of results, guiding the interpretation of outcomes and conclusions.
te statistical hypothesis that will always express no difference or no relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
hypotheses that do not predict a direction of change.
not only describe the relationship between variables in terms of a difference, but they also assign a direction to that difference.
includes one independent variable and one deendent variable.
contains mor ehtan one independent and dependent variable.
concepts or principles that are assumed to be true, based on documented evidence of accepted theoretical premises.
is a report or document provided directly by the person who authored it.
is a description or review of one or more studiespresented by someone other than the original author.