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What are the layers of the back?
- superficial fascia
- deep/muscle fascia
- lumbar fascia (thoracolumbar fascia)
Where is the thickest skin on the body?
What are the derivatives of the skin?
sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails and body hair
What nerves supply the skin?
Cutaneous nerves function in the following capacities:
- 1. provide sensory receptors for pain, touch, temperature and pressure
- 2. stimulate glandular sectrion, control blood vessel diameter, and contraction of erector pili muscles
What controls involuntary actions?
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Which bony lndmarks are palpable on the back?
- 1. spinous processes of vertebrae -C7, T1-12, L1-5
- 2. scapula -spine and acromion process
- 3. iliac crests
Where is fascia found?
deep to (below) the skin
What is fascia composed of?
connective tissue with vessels and nerves
What are the physical properties of fascia?
elasticity and mobility, depends on types of connective tissue cells and extracellular material surrounding these cells
What is contained in the superficial layer of fascia?
subcutaneous fat (adipose) tissue
What is the function of the superficial layer of fascia?
provides insulation against cold temperature
What determines the amount of fat deposited in the superficial layer of fascia?
- nutritional status
- secondary sexual characteristics (hormonally controlled)
Where is the deep layer of fascia?
surrounds individual muscles
What are the functions of the deep layer of fascia?
- 1. provides packing material between muscles
- 2. provides channel for vessels and nerves
What determines the amount and type of connective tissue in the deep layer of fascia?
mobility of organs
Where is the thoracolumbar fascia?
surrounds intrinsic (true) back muscles, most prominent in the lumbar region
What is the thoracolumbar fascia derived from?
- aponeuroses of:
- 1. internal abdominal oblique m
- 2. transversus abdominis m
- 3. latissimus dorsi m
muscle tendon flattened; broad flat tendon
Which muscles are associated with the superficial layer of the back?
trapezius and latissimus dorsi
Which muscles are associated with the middle layer of the back?
- rhomboideus major and minor
- levator scapulae
- serratus posterior superior
- seratus posterior inferior
Which muscles are associated with the deep layer of the back?
erector spinae and transversospinalis
Which muscle layer of the back is associated with the upper extremity?
Which muscle layer of the back is known as the intrinsic (true) muscles of the back?
How many vertebrae do semipinalis span?
How many vertebrae do multifidus span?
How many vertebrae do rotatores span?
Intrinsic back muscles are innervated by...
dorsal primary rami of nearest spinal nerves
Lateral flexion (bending) of spine is controlled by...
muscles on the same side
Rotation of spine is controlled by...
abdominal muscles and transversospinalis on ipsilateral side
normal curvatur of lumbar spine