Exam 1: The Back

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Exam 1: The Back
2012-06-10 17:04:01
anatomy back

Review of Back lecture from 6/4 for exam 1
Show Answers:

  1. What are the layers of the back?
    • skin
    • superficial fascia
    • deep/muscle fascia
    • lumbar fascia (thoracolumbar fascia)
    • muscles/spine
  2. Where is the thickest skin on the body?
    the back
  3. What are the derivatives of the skin?
    sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails and body hair
  4. What nerves supply the skin?
    cutaneous nerves
  5. Cutaneous nerves function in the following capacities:
    • 1. provide sensory receptors for pain, touch, temperature and pressure
    • 2. stimulate glandular sectrion, control blood vessel diameter, and contraction of erector pili muscles
  6. What controls involuntary actions?
    autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  7. Which bony lndmarks are palpable on the back?
    • 1. spinous processes of vertebrae -C7, T1-12, L1-5
    • 2. scapula -spine and acromion process
    • 3. iliac crests
  8. Where is fascia found?
    deep to (below) the skin
  9. What is fascia composed of?
    connective tissue with vessels and nerves
  10. What are the physical properties of fascia?
    elasticity and mobility, depends on types of connective tissue cells and extracellular material surrounding these cells
  11. What is contained in the superficial layer of fascia?
    subcutaneous fat (adipose) tissue
  12. What is the function of the superficial layer of fascia?
    provides insulation against cold temperature
  13. What determines the amount of fat deposited in the superficial layer of fascia?
    • nutritional status
    • age
    • secondary sexual characteristics (hormonally controlled)
  14. Where is the deep layer of fascia?
    surrounds individual muscles
  15. What are the functions of the deep layer of fascia?
    • 1. provides packing material between muscles
    • 2. provides channel for vessels and nerves
  16. What determines the amount and type of connective tissue in the deep layer of fascia?
    mobility of organs
  17. Where is the thoracolumbar fascia?
    surrounds intrinsic (true) back muscles, most prominent in the lumbar region
  18. What is the thoracolumbar fascia derived from?
    • aponeuroses of:
    • 1. internal abdominal oblique m
    • 2. transversus abdominis m
    • 3. latissimus dorsi m
  19. Aponeuroses:
    muscle tendon flattened; broad flat tendon
  20. Which muscles are associated with the superficial layer of the back?
    trapezius and latissimus dorsi
  21. Which muscles are associated with the middle layer of the back?
    • rhomboideus major and minor
    • levator scapulae
    • serratus posterior superior
    • seratus posterior inferior
    • splenius
  22. Which muscles are associated with the deep layer of the back?
    erector spinae and transversospinalis
  23. Which muscle layer of the back is associated with the upper extremity?
    superficial layer
  24. Which muscle layer of the back is known as the intrinsic (true) muscles of the back?
    deep layer
  25. How many vertebrae do semipinalis span?
  26. How many vertebrae do multifidus span?
  27. How many vertebrae do rotatores span?
  28. Intrinsic back muscles are innervated by...
    dorsal primary rami of nearest spinal nerves
  29. Lateral flexion (bending) of spine is controlled by...
    muscles on the same side
  30. Rotation of spine is controlled by...
    abdominal muscles and transversospinalis on ipsilateral side
  31. Lordosis:
    normal curvatur of lumbar spine