Exam 1: Vertebral Column

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  1. The appendicular skeleton includes...
    the upper extremity and its pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapula), and the lower extremity and its pelvic girdle (ilium, pubis, and ischium)
  2. The axial skeleton includes...
    skull, mandible, hyoid bone, vertebral column including sacrum and coccyx, ribs and sternum
  3. Functions of the vertebral column:
    • 1. supports the skull over the vertical axis
    • 2. provides attachment for respiratory muscles
    • 3. provides attachment for muscles that move the torso
    • 4. protects spinal cord, thoracic organs and some abdominal organs from physical damage
  4. What are the regions of the vertebral column?
    cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx
  5. How many cervical vertebrae?
  6. How many thoracic vertebrae?
  7. How many lumbar vertebrae?
  8. What is the sacrum?
    formed from fusion of 5 vertebrae (fusion begins at 16-18 years of age and is completed by mid-20's)
  9. What is the coccyx?
    formed from fusion of 3-5 vertebrae (fusion complete by age 30)
  10. What is a primary curve of the spine?
    exists in utero, concave anterorly
  11. Cervical curve:
    secondary curve, normally seen at 3 months of age. Convex anteriorly and develops from holding head upright
  12. Lumbar curve:
    secondary curve normally seen at 6 months of age. Convex anteriorly and develops due to sitting up. At 12 months of age it becomes accentuated bue to bipedal locomotion
  13. Which curves of the spine are secondary?
    cervical and lumbar
  14. which curves of the spine are convex anteriorly?
    secondary, cervical and lumbar
  15. What caused the development of various curves?
    differences in anterior and posterior depths of vertebral bodies and intervetebral discs
  16. What are the primary curvatures of the spine?
    thoracic and sacral
  17. Abnormal kyphosis:
    affects thoracic region and presents as an increased posterior convexity (hunchback appearance)
  18. Abnormal lordosis:
    affects lumbar region and presents as increased anterior convexity (sway back)
  19. What could cause abnormal lordosis?
    pregnancy, heavy abdominal weight
  20. Scoliosis
    • two abnormal lateral curves of the spine
    • -primary curve is in thoracolumbar region
    • -secondary curve develop in thoracocervical region as a compensatory curve
  21. What is the function of the secondary curve of scoliosis?
    maintains skull over vertical axis of body
  22. What is a deformity caused by scoliosis?
    rotational deformity that is visible in the thoracic rib cage
  23. Who is most likely to get scoliosis?
    teenage girls
  24. Where are ligaments of the vertebral column found?
    between vertebral bodies and between vertebral arches
  25. Ligaments between bertebral bodies include:
    • intervertebral discs
    • anterior longitudinal ligament
    • posterior longitudinal ligament
  26. Ligaments between the vertebral arches include:
    • supraspinous ligament
    • interspinous ligament
    • ligamentum flavum
    • intertransverse ligaments
  27. What are intervertebral discs comprised of?
    gelatinous core (nucleus pulposis) and a fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus)
  28. What defines the shap and size of intervertebral discs?
    vertebral bodies and curvature of the spine
  29. What are intervertebral discs attached to?
    bodies of vertebrae
  30. Fibrous ring of intervertebral discs are made of:
    collegen fibers (connective tissue) oriented at angle to provide structural integrity (strength)
  31. Describe the anterior longitudinal ligament:
    broad and flat, on front side of vertebrae and intevertebral discs; quite strong and found along the entire length of the vertebral column
  32. Describe the posterior longitudinal ligament:
    narrow and flat, on back side of vertebral bodies and the intervertebral discs; contained within the vertebral canal and is found along entire length of the vertebral column
  33. Where do herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) usually protrude?
    laterally and posteriorly
  34. Describe the supraspinous ligament:
    continuous structure attached to tips of the spinous processes (posteriorly) along the entire lenght of vertebral column
  35. What is the ligamentum nuchae?
    • the enlargement of the supraspinous ligament in the cervical region
    • adaptation which attaches to inion (ext. occipital protuberance) and cervical spines
  36. Where are interspinous ligaments found?
    between adjacent spinous processes
  37. Where is the ligamentum flavum found?
    between adjacent laminae
  38. What is an unusal characteristic of the ligamentum flavum?
    yellow colored
  39. What does the yellow color of the ligamentum flavum represent?
    • elastic fibers which allow it to stretch and recoil to orginal length
    • this prevents pressure on spinal cord during flexion
  40. Where are intertransverse ligaments found?
    between adjacent transverse processes
  41. What are the basic movements of the vertebral column?
    flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation
  42. What makes the basic movements of the vertebral column possible?
    the compression and distortion of intervertebral discs
  43. What limits the basic movements of the vertebral column?
    orientation of the joints between the vertebral arches
  44. What movements are possible in the cervical region?
    flexion, extension, and lateral flexion
  45. What movements are possible in the thoracic spine?
    • flexion, extension, and lateral flexion are possible, but to a limited extent
    • free rotation possible due to alignment of articular processes on an arc about the axis of rotation
  46. What movements are possible in the lumbar spine?
    flxion, extension, and lateral flexion
  47. What limits rotation in the lumbar spine?
    inwardly facing articular processes
  48. What types of joints are formed by the articular facets of the spine?
    synovial joints
  49. What forms the intervertebral foramen were the spinal nerves pass through?
    the uppe surface and lower (inf) surface of pedicles that have curvatures called notches that fit together
  50. The 12 pairs of ribs articulate with which vertebrae?
    thoracic, forming costal facets
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Exam 1: Vertebral Column
review of vertebral column notes from 6/4 lecture for exam 1
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