Exam 1: Vertebral Column
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The appendicular skeleton includes...
the upper extremity and its pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapula), and the lower extremity and its pelvic girdle (ilium, pubis, and ischium)
The axial skeleton includes...
skull, mandible, hyoid bone, vertebral column including sacrum and coccyx, ribs and sternum
Functions of the vertebral column:
- 1. supports the skull over the vertical axis
- 2. provides attachment for respiratory muscles
- 3. provides attachment for muscles that move the torso
- 4. protects spinal cord, thoracic organs and some abdominal organs from physical damage
What are the regions of the vertebral column?
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx
How many cervical vertebrae?
How many thoracic vertebrae?
How many lumbar vertebrae?
What is the sacrum?
formed from fusion of 5 vertebrae (fusion begins at 16-18 years of age and is completed by mid-20's)
What is the coccyx?
formed from fusion of 3-5 vertebrae (fusion complete by age 30)
What is a primary curve of the spine?
exists in utero, concave anterorly
secondary curve, normally seen at 3 months of age. Convex anteriorly and develops from holding head upright
secondary curve normally seen at 6 months of age. Convex anteriorly and develops due to sitting up. At 12 months of age it becomes accentuated bue to bipedal locomotion
Which curves of the spine are secondary?
cervical and lumbar
which curves of the spine are convex anteriorly?
secondary, cervical and lumbar
What caused the development of various curves?
differences in anterior and posterior depths of vertebral bodies and intervetebral discs
What are the primary curvatures of the spine?
thoracic and sacral
affects thoracic region and presents as an increased posterior convexity (hunchback appearance)
affects lumbar region and presents as increased anterior convexity (sway back)
What could cause abnormal lordosis?
pregnancy, heavy abdominal weight
- two abnormal lateral curves of the spine
- -primary curve is in thoracolumbar region
- -secondary curve develop in thoracocervical region as a compensatory curve
What is the function of the secondary curve of scoliosis?
maintains skull over vertical axis of body
What is a deformity caused by scoliosis?
rotational deformity that is visible in the thoracic rib cage
Who is most likely to get scoliosis?
Where are ligaments of the vertebral column found?
between vertebral bodies and between vertebral arches
Ligaments between bertebral bodies include:
- intervertebral discs
- anterior longitudinal ligament
- posterior longitudinal ligament
Ligaments between the vertebral arches include:
- supraspinous ligament
- interspinous ligament
- ligamentum flavum
- intertransverse ligaments
What are intervertebral discs comprised of?
gelatinous core (nucleus pulposis) and a fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus)
What defines the shap and size of intervertebral discs?
vertebral bodies and curvature of the spine
What are intervertebral discs attached to?
bodies of vertebrae
Fibrous ring of intervertebral discs are made of:
collegen fibers (connective tissue) oriented at angle to provide structural integrity (strength)
Describe the anterior longitudinal ligament:
broad and flat, on front side of vertebrae and intevertebral discs; quite strong and found along the entire length of the vertebral column
Describe the posterior longitudinal ligament:
narrow and flat, on back side of vertebral bodies and the intervertebral discs; contained within the vertebral canal and is found along entire length of the vertebral column
Where do herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) usually protrude?
laterally and posteriorly
Describe the supraspinous ligament:
continuous structure attached to tips of the spinous processes (posteriorly) along the entire lenght of vertebral column
What is the ligamentum nuchae?
- the enlargement of the supraspinous ligament in the cervical region
- adaptation which attaches to inion (ext. occipital protuberance) and cervical spines
Where are interspinous ligaments found?
between adjacent spinous processes
Where is the ligamentum flavum found?
between adjacent laminae
What is an unusal characteristic of the ligamentum flavum?
What does the yellow color of the ligamentum flavum represent?
- elastic fibers which allow it to stretch and recoil to orginal length
- this prevents pressure on spinal cord during flexion
Where are intertransverse ligaments found?
between adjacent transverse processes
What are the basic movements of the vertebral column?
flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation
What makes the basic movements of the vertebral column possible?
the compression and distortion of intervertebral discs
What limits the basic movements of the vertebral column?
orientation of the joints between the vertebral arches
What movements are possible in the cervical region?
flexion, extension, and lateral flexion
What movements are possible in the thoracic spine?
- flexion, extension, and lateral flexion are possible, but to a limited extent
- free rotation possible due to alignment of articular processes on an arc about the axis of rotation
What movements are possible in the lumbar spine?
flxion, extension, and lateral flexion
What limits rotation in the lumbar spine?
inwardly facing articular processes
What types of joints are formed by the articular facets of the spine?
What forms the intervertebral foramen were the spinal nerves pass through?
the uppe surface and lower (inf) surface of pedicles that have curvatures called notches that fit together
The 12 pairs of ribs articulate with which vertebrae?
thoracic, forming costal facets
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