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  1. about what percentage of Frances population belonged to the third estate?
    A. 1
    B.50
    C.98
    D.10
    C. 98
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. what happend on july 14 bastille day?
    A. robespierre was executed by guillotine
    B. french women marched all the way to versailles
    C. a mob stormed a prison looking for gunpowder
    d. all of the above are true
    C. a mob stormed a prison looking for gunpowder
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. which document stated that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights"?

    A. napoleonic code
    B. declaration of independence
    C. declaration of the rights of man
    D. holy alliance
    C. declaration of the rights of man
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. what was napoleon able to accomplish during peacetime?

    a. he set up government-run public schools
    b. he set up a comprehensive system of laws
    c. he established a fairer tax code
    d. all of the above are true
    d. all of the above are true
  5. who was the most influential leader at the congress of vienna?

    A. prince klemens von metternich of austria
    B. Czar alexander I of russia
    C. emperor francis I of austria
    D. king frederick william III of prussia
    A. prince klemens von metternich of austria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. why did the national assembly lose the support of many french peasants?

    A. it taxed the bourgeoisie
    B. it made peasants and noblemen equals
    C. it took away the catholic churchs lands and independence
    D. it adopted "a declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen"
    C. it took away the catholic church's lands and independence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. which group imposed the reign of terror?

    A. the comittee of public safety
    B. the national assembly
    C. the kings swiss guard
    D. the second calition
    A. the committee of public safety
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. how did great Britain react to the continental system?

    A. it organized its own blockade
    B. it formed an alliance with austria and prussia
    C. it negotiated a peace agreement with france
    D. it invaded fance
    A. it organized its own blockade
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. what strategy did Czar alexander I use to defeat Napoleon in russia?

    A. scorched-earth policy
    B. guns and cannons
    C. endless negotiations
    D. frontal attach
    A. scorched-earth policy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. what did klemens von mertternich no want to accomplish at the congress of vienna

    A. strength coutries surrounding france to prevent future french aggression
    B. create a balance of power in europe
    C. restore europes royal families to their thrones
    D. create the beginnings of a european democracy
    D. create the beginnings of a european democracy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. what was one important effect resulting from the political changes made at the congress of vienna?

    A. russia and prussia joined forces to control france
    B. monarchs in Austria, Russia, and prussia agreed to share power with elected
    C. fance managed to retain control over the netherlands
    D. nationalistic feelings grew in countries placed under foreign rule
    D. nationalistic feelings grew in countries placed under foreign rule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. the independance movement in latin america was spearheaded by

    A. the creoles
    B. the peninsulares
    C. the mulattos
    D. the spanish
    A. the creoles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. in early 19th century euope, the liberals wanted

    A. to give more power to elected parliaments
    B. the abolish formal government and replace it with anarch
    C. to limit the influence of buiness leaders and merchants
    D. to protect the traditional monarchies of europe
    A. to give more power to elected parliaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. in the 1860's, the expansion of prussia was achieved under the leadership of

    A. giuseppe garibaldi
    B. king victor emmanuel II
    C. frederick william IV
    D. otto von bismarck
    D. otto von bismarck
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. camillo di cavour expanded piedmont-sardinia's power and also

    A. took control of venetia
    B. unified italy
    C. conquered part of france
    d. all of the above
    B. unified italy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. which of the following men led a revolt of enslaved africans in saint domingue

    A. giuseppe garibaldi
    B. jose maria morelos
    C. toussaint L'Ouverture
    D. jose de san martin
    C. toussaint L'Ouverture
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. which of the following was probably NOT influenced by nationalism during the 1800s?

    A. groups accepting a long-established form of government
    B. an empire that crumbles into independent states
    C. an empire granting long-needed social reforms
    D. groups uniting against an oppressive monarchy
    A. groups accepting a long-established form government
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. which of the following statement would otto von bismarck probably NOT agree with

    A. military force should be used to achieve political gain
    B. manufacturing political "incidents" is acceptiable if it achieves a worthy goal
    C. it is the destiny of the weak to be devoured by the strong
    D. a ruler should never violate the constitiution of his of her country
    A. militry force should be used to achieve political gain
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. by 1871 there was a shift in power in europe, which nation changed?

    A. germany replaced france
    B. britain replaced germany
    C. italy replaced prussia
    D. prussia became germany
    D. prussia became germany
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. which of the following would most likely have been a radical in the 1800?

    A. a prosperous land owner who owns less than 10,000 acres
    B. a port student who has read extensively about democracy
    C. a nobleman who is realted to his countrys king
    D. a wealthy buisness man who wants to give his country's parliament more power
    B. a poor student who had read extensively about democracy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. which of the following led to the formation of the seocond reich

    a. ruthless leadership
    b. friendly diplomatic realations with france
    b. the power of the german parliament
    d. all of the above
    a. ruthles leadership
  22. what was the industrial revolution

    A. a widespread use of teenagers as factory laborers who worked 14 hour days, 6 days a week
    B. increased purcheses of land by wealthy landowners to cultivate larger fields
    C. increased populations of urban areas during the 1800s
    D. increased output of machine-made goods what began in england during the 18th-century
    D. increased output of machine-made goods that began in england during the 18th-century
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. which of the following was a result of the agircultural revolution

    a. many small farmers became tenant farmers or moved to cities
    b. enclosures became landmarkds of wealthy landowners
    c. landowners experimented with new agricultural methods
    d. all of the above are true
    d. all of the above are true
  24. what were the three factors of poduction required to drive the industrial revolutiaon

    A. government, military, colonies
    B.raw materials, natural resources, man-made goods
    C. road, railway, and water transport
    D. land, labor, capital
    D. land, labor, capital
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. what is the laissez-faire policy

    a. a policy that allowed labor to set owrking conditions based on votes on issues relevant to their industry
    b. a policy where labor created a committee to set working standards without interference from industry owners
    c. a policy that taugh owners of industry how to set working conditionas without government interference
    d. a policy that let owner of industry set working conditions without government interference
  26. how did britains economy affect the process of industrialization?
    A.positively, by britains highly developed banking system, availability of loans, and climate of progress
    B. negatively, by britatins decision to forbid engineers, mechanics and toolmakers to leave the country
    C. negatively, by britatins overseas expansion, which took jobs away from the british citizens
    D.positively, by britain allowing women and children to work long hours and grow wealthy
    A. positively, by britains highly developed banking system, availabilty of loans, and climate of progress
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. waht was the impact of the steam engine on the production of british goods?
    A. it allowed small ferries to monopolize the transport of raw materials through english canals
    B. it launched the railway age that brought the transportation of people and materials to a new level
    C. it enabed the mining industry to work more efficienly without the need for workers
    d. all of the above are true
    B. it launched the railway age that brought the transport of people and materials to a new level
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. which of the following was NOT a legislative reform in the 1800s
    A.the mines act prevented woment and children under the age of nine
    B. the supremem court created social security to support retired workers
    C. in england, it became illegal to hire children under the age of nine
    D. the supreme court of the united states objected to a federal child labor law
    B. the supreme court created social security to support retired workers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. what were the long-term effects of marx and engels's the communist manifesto
    A. during the 1848 and 1849 revolts shook europe but were suppressed
    B. marx and engels's predictions proved correct as a economic forces alone ruled society
    C. in the 1900s, marxism inspired revolutionaries such as russias lenin
    D. working classes worldwide demanded a "dictatorship of the proletariat"
    C. in teh 1900s, marxism inspired revolutinaries such as russia's lenin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. which of the following statements are true of socialism and communism?
    A. socialism and communism are two words for the same ideoligy
    B. socialism and communism are two completely different and unrelated ideologies
    C. communism is a form of complete socialism in which the people own all production and property
    D. communism gives control of a country to its people and socialism gives control of industry to the people
    C. communism is a form of complete socialism in which the people own all production and property
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. which of the following was an important factor leading to greek independence in 1830
    A. the decline of the russian empire
    B. european popular opinion inspired by a classical revival
    C.ottoman support of greek nationalism
    D. the serbian revolt
    E. greek dominance of mediteranean maritime trade
    B. european popular opinion inspired by a classical revival
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. which if the following was most central to the development of the early industrial revolution
    A. the shift from human and animal power to mechanical power
    B. the substitution of unionized for independent labo
    C. the replacement of iron by steel
    D. the decline of individual enterprise in favor of cooperative efforts
    E. the shift from coal to ail-fired forges
    A. the shift from human and animal power to mechanical power
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. at the congress of vienna, a principle that guided the deliberations of the diplomats was
    A. imperialism
    B. liberalism
    C.self-determanation
    D. balance of power
    E. utilitarianism
    D. balance of power
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. urban life in the major european cities during the industrial revolution was characterized by
    a. rapid social mobility among recent migrants from the countryside
    d. overcrowded living conditions and unsafe working conditions for the working poor
    c. the adoption of laissez-faire attitudes by industrial workers
    d. government control of major industrial companies
    e. an increase in the nobilitys power over the urban population
    b. overcrowded living conditions and unsafe working conditions for the working poor
  35. european liverals in the first half of the 19C typically supported
    A. the right of workers to unionize and strike
    B. a written consitution and wider suffrage
    C. the establishment of overseas colonies to improve conditions at home
    D. women's suffrage
    E. accident and unemployment insurance
    B. a written consitution and wider suffrage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. napoleon bonaparte's repressive occupation sparked a violent popular revolt in
    A. italy
    B. austria
    C. great britain
    D. poland
    E. spain
    E. spain
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. the basic goal of napoleons continental system was to
    A. weaken english economically
    B. isolate russia diplomatically
    C. unify germany
    D. conquer italy
    E. unite france and spain
    A. weaken england economically
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. the meeting of the estates-general in 1789 marked a significant step toward revolution in france because it
    A. exposed the plans of louis XVI to abdicate in favor of his son
    B. provide a legitimate forum for critics of the old regime
    C.revealted the extent of papal influence on the french royal family
    D. gave the clergy and the nobility an opportunity to overthrow the monarchy
    E. included a proposal to confiscate on the french royal family
    B. provide a legitimate forum for critics of the old regime
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. the American Revolution played a major role in european history because it
    A. created a new balance of power in favor of great britain
    B. precipitated the french fiscal crisis that led to the calling of the estates-general
    C. inspired englands glorious revolution
    D. inspired the united irish rebellion
    E. led spain to repudiate its alliances with france and great britain
    B. precipitated the french fiscal crisis that led to the calling of the estates-general
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. which of the following best describes the french third estate?
    A. the revolutionary faction that launched the reign of terror
    B. counterrevolutionary provinces that resisted the national assembly
    C. the non-noble, nonclerical section of the estates-general
    D. the nobility of the robe, who acquired nobal rank by purchase
    E. the palace at the tuileries, which was the chief royal residence after versailles and the Louvre
    C. the non-noble, nonclerical section of the estates-general
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. what was the main economic activity in new france
    A. finding gold and spices
    B. finding religious freedom
    C. building a fur trade
    D. creating long-term colonial investment
    C.building a fur trade
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. why did europeans see africans as a better a source of labor than native americans
    A. africans had to experience in farming, so they wouldn't try to do things their way
    B. africans were strangers in the americans, so they wouldn't have allies of places to hide
    C. africans had complete immunity to all diseases, so they wouldn't die off
    D. africans were already christians, so they didn't to be converte
    B. africans were already christains, so they didn't have to be converted
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. what was the purpose of most of the joint-stock companies of the 1500s and 1600s
    A. paying for the building of slave ships
    B. funding colonies in the americas
    C. financing wars in africa
    D. funding the digging of gold mines
    B. funding colonies in the americas
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. where in the americas did christopher columbus lang first
    A. an island in the caribbean sea
    B. the eastern coast of north america
    C. the coast of what is today panama
    D. the southern tip of south america
    A. an island in the caribbean sea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. what did the encomienda system provide for new spain
    A. military protection
    B. more settlers
    C. a cheap labor source
    D. more land
    C. a cheap labor source
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. to maintain a favorable balance of trade, in the comparing exports and imports, it is the value of the imports that must be higher
    true or false?
    false, exports
  47. the middle passage of the triangular trade system began in eurtope and ended in the west indies, north america, or south america
    true or false?
    flase, africa
  48. one of the long-term effects of the african slave trade was the introduction of quns into african continent
    true or false?
    true
  49. the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the americas is known as the columbian exchange
    true or false?
    true
  50. the economic system of mercantillism is based on private ownership and the investment of wealth for profit
    true or false?
    fasle, capitalism
  51. how did slavery in african and muslim societies differ from slavery in the americas
    A. the slavery in africa and muslim societies was based primarily one race
    B. slavery in the americas was based on race and was hereditary
    C. people in african and muslim societies could not escape their slavery
    D. enslaved people in african and muslim societies could not rise socially
    B. slavery in the americas was based on race and was hereditary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. how was africa affected by the atlantic slave trade
    A. many cultures lost their fittest members, and families were torn apart
    B. kings were able to stop rebellions with the firearms they received in trade
    C. all african countries prospered from the trade and grew to be world poweres
    D. african civilizations became safer because they captured and traded away their criminals
    A. many cultures lost their fittest member, and families were torn apart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. what concept was the belief in "divine right" used to support
    A. waging war for religious purposes
    B. freedom of religion
    C. separation of church and state
    D. absolute rule
    D. absolute rule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. which war was sparked by religious conflict and resulted in the increased power of france, the weakening of spain and austria, and the devastation of germany
    A. the seven years' war
    B. the war of the austrian succession
    C. the war of the spanish succession
    D. the thirty years' war
    D. the thirty years' war
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. which of the following did the glorious revolution bringing to englands throne
    A. james I
    B. Charles I
    C. william and mary
    D. James II
    C. william and mary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. by the end of the 1600s, what had englands system of government because
    A. a constitutional monarchy
    B. an absolute monarchy
    C. a military dictatorshi
    D. a constitutional democracy
    A. a constitutional monarchy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. what king became frances most powerful ruler and boasted "i am the state"?
    A. Henry IV
    B. Louis IX
    C. louis IXV
    D. henry II
    C. louis IXV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. european monarch became absolute rulers in response to which of the following
    A. heavy tax budens that were levied to support trade and colonial growth
    B. religious and territorial conflicts that caused warfare and revolts
    C. the increased size of courts and new government bureaucracies
    D. the growth and increased power of nobilities and representatives bodies
    B. religious and territorial conflicts that caused warfare and revolts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. after the northern dutch gained their freedom from spain, what type of government did the united provinces of the netherlands establish
    A. an absolute monarchy
    B. a consitutional monarchy
    C. a republic
    D. a military dictatorship
    C. a republic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. which of the following did the restoration "restore" to power in england
    A. the king who had been overthrown in the civil war
    B. the catholics
    C. the monarchy, as an instituiton
    D. parliament
    C. the monarchy, as an institution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. what did frederick the great believe a ruler should be?
    A. a military commander
    B. a father to his people
    C. suspicious of his advisers
    D. all-powerful and unrelenting
    B. a father to his people
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. what was peter the great the first russian ruler to make an effort to do
    A. add territory to the russian state
    B. organized and utilize a secret police force
    C. reduce the powe of the nobles
    D. westernize russia
    D. westernize russia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. which of the following reflects the chronological order of events in english history
    A. the english civil war-the glorious revolution- the restoration
    B. the restoration-the english civil war- the glorious revolution
    C. the english civil war- the restoration-the glorious revolution
    D. the glorious revolution-the restoration-the english civil war
    C. the english civil war-the restoration-the glorious revolution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. what problem helpe to weaken the spanish empire
    A. spain developed a highly influential middle class and lost its nobility
    B. spanish kings refused to declare bankruptcy or repay their debts
    C. spanish kings borrowed money from england and fance to finance wars
    D. spain experienced a period of severe inflaiton and heavy taxed
    D. spain experienced a period of severe inflation and heavy taxes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. what was the significance of the english bill of rights
    A. it made clear the limits of royal power
    B. it allowed for the bloodless overthrow of king james II
    C. it established the group of government ministers known as the cabinet
    D. it restored power to the monarch
    A. it made clear the limits of royal power
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. how did the puritans finally win the english civil war?
    A. cromwell stormed the castle and seized charles I
    B. cromwell killed charles I and appointed himself dictator
    C. cromwell won support of parliament and was appointed dictator
    D. cromwell's army defeated the royalists, and the puritans held the king prisoner
    D. cromwells army defeated the royalist, and the puritans held the king prisoner
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. the helocentric, or sun-centered, theory was proposed by
    A. isaac newton
    B. galileo galilei
    C. francis bacon
    D. nicolaus copernicus
    D. nicolaus copernics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. francis bacon helped to develop
    A. the law of the pendulum
    B. the microscope
    C. the sientific method
    D. the barometer
    C. the scientific method
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. isaac newton explained the
    A. the function of blood vessel
    B. law of the universal gravitation
    C. anatomy of the human body
    D. chemical composition of matter
    B. law of universal gravitation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. which of the following did the enlighenment promote
    a. a belief in progress
    b. a more secular outlook
    c. faith in science
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  71. which of the following men contradicted the ideas in the U.S. constitution
    A. john locke
    B. denis dideriot
    C. baron de montesquieu
    D. thomas hobbes
    D. thomas hobbes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. which of the following did the censors of the catholic church ban
    A. the encyclopdeia
    B. don giovanni
    C. tom jones
    d. all of the above
    A. the encyclopedia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. which of the following were caused by the scienfic revolution
    A. the reliance on ancient authorities to explain the physical world
    B. improvements in medicine and scientific instruments
    C. the assumption that that the human body was similar to the the anatomy of other animals
    D. the belief that the earth was unmoving object at the center of the universe
    B. improvements in medicine and scientific instruments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. how did the declaration of independence embody enlightenment ideals
    A. it said that people have rights of life, liverty, and the pursuit of happiness
    B. it protected the rights of the accused and prohibited cruel punishment
    C. it set up a system of checks and balances for the U.S. government
    D. it stated that all titles of nobility should be abolished
    A. it said that people have rights of life, liverty, and the pursuit of happiness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. the portuguese armada was defeated in 1588 by stormy weather and the englsih navy
    true or false?
    false, spanish
  76. during the 1600s, the spanish gradually replaced the italians as the bankers of europe
    true or false?
    flase, dutch
  77. philip II believed it was his duty to defend protestantism from its enemies in europe and the ottoman empire
    true or false?
    false, catholosism
  78. hernando cortes marched his force of about 600 men through mexico to conquer the aztec empire
    true or false?
    true
  79. francisco pizarro and his army defeated the inca by killing a largely unarmed group and then kidnapping and murdering their king
    true or false?
    true
  80. the encomiendas were spanish explorers who conquered and colonized areas of what are now mexico. south america, and the united states
    true or false?
    false, conquistadors
  81. before 1700 spain governed its american colonies through a system of
    A. appointed administrators
    B. written consitutions
    C. elected presidents
    D. independent merchants
    E. chartered companies
    A. appointed administrators
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. which of the following is most likely to have influenced eighteenth-century population trends in both europe and china
    A. the rise of parliamentary governments
    B. improvement in surgical procedures
    C. introduction of western hemisphere crops
    D. a sharp decline in average global temperatures
    E. innovation in birth control measures
    C. introduction of western hemisphoere crops
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. which of the following most accurately describes the political system of the dutch republic of the seventeenth century
    A. control by feudal lords
    B. rule by yeoman farmers
    C. popular democracy
    D. rule by an absolute monarch
    E. rule by wealthy merchants
    D. rule by an absolute monarch
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. galileo was found guilty of hersy and condemned by the inquisition on the grounds that he
    A. actively supported the gallican cause in france against papal supremacy
    B. used his telescope to explore the heavens
    C. discovered the law of the universal gravitation
    D. left the roman catholic church and because a protestant
    E. publicly advocated copernicus' heliocentric system
    E. publicly advocated copernicus' heliocentric system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. english entrepreneurs financed the establishment of new world colonies primary through
    A.private funds from the creation of the joint-stock companies
    B.subsidies and loans from the royal family
    C. profits received from pirate activities and attacks on spanish fleets
    D. investment funds from european national banks
    E. money and materials borrowed from the dutch
    A. private funds from the creation of joint-stock companies
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. which of the following is most characteristics of voltairs ideas
    A. the branches of government should be balanced
    B. the general will is the ideal basis for good government
    C. future progress is inevitable and limitless
    D. sensory experience can never be varified
    E. empiricism and religious tolerance are to be celebrated
    E. empiricism and religious tolerance are to be celebrated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. a primary goal of philip II of spain was to
    A. grant toleration to religious minorities
    B. maintain spaish control of the netherlands
    C. stengthen the spanish economy
    D. reunite the spanish and austrian hapsburg empires
    E. create a monarchy accessible to the people
    B. maintain spanish control of the netherlands
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. which of the following best helps to explain the economic and political decline of spain during the seventeenth ccentury
    A. the collective security measures implemented by cardinal richelieu in order to prevent the spread of catholicism
    B. the extensive battle waged in the iverian peninsule between the imperial forces and various coalition of protestants
    C. the advocacy of religious toleration by the spanish rulers to promote the immigration of non-catholice groups into spain
    D. the extension of the empire's commitments beyond its resources
    E. the secret treatybetween england and france to embargo the ports of the iberian peninsula
    D. the extension of the empires commitments beyond its resources
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. jean-jacques rousseau differed significantly from other enlightenment philosophes in his
    A. belief in traditional religious customs
    B. emphasis on the importance of science to social progress
    C. emphasis on emotions and his admiration for nature
    D. belief in determinism
    E. belief in the divine right of kings
    C. emphasis on emotions and his admiration of nature
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. "kings are justly called gods fo that they exercise a manner or resemblance of divine power upon earth"
    which of the following was most likey to agree with this statement
    A. james I of england
    B. sir thomas more
    C. george III of england
    D. Napoleon III of france
    E. pope pius IX
    A. james I of England
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. the leading economic center of early seventeenth century europe was
    A.hamburg
    B. amsterdam
    C. rome
    D. london
    E. prague
    B. amsterdam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. the columbian exchange involved which of the following new connections in the era 1450-1750
    A. european technology to africa; western hemisphere population to africa; african food to the western ehmisphere
    B. european food to the western hemisphere; western hemisphere diseases to europe;african population to europe
    C. western hemisphere technology to africa; aftrican food to europe; european population to western hemisphere
    D. african population to the wstern hemisphere; western hemisphere food to europe and africa; african and european diseases to the western hemisphere
    D. african population to the wstern hemisphere; western hemisphere food to europe and africa; african and european diseases to the western hemisphere
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. portuguese commercial expansion overseas in the sixteenth century resulted in
    A. the sacking of istanbul by portuguese explorers
    B. the discovery of the christian ruler of ethiopia, prester john
    C. military conflicts with arab explorers over the religious conversion of indigenous peoples
    D. the destruction of the dutch east india company
    E. seizure of muslim coastal forst to serve as portuguese trading posts and military bases
    E. seizure of muslim coastal forst to serve as portuguese trading posts and military bases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. which of the following best describes the french edict of nantes(1998)?
    A. it led to the establishment of french colonies in north america
    B. it led to fifty years of violent peasant rebellions
    C. it granted legal equality to all classes in france
    D. it signaled the end of the french territorail expansion for a century
    E.it provided limited political and religious liberties for french huguenots
    E.it provided limited political and religious liberties for french huguenots
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. religious change in the 17th C Netherlands led to
    A. the excluion of women artists from portriat painting
    B. great vitality in intellectual and artistic life
    C. and emphasis on decorative rather than fine arts
    D. the establishment of official censorship to purge catholic influences from the art
    E.a rebirth of fresco painting in the churches
    B. great vitality in intellectual and artistic life
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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