Marine Communities

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Marine Communities
2009-12-01 18:07:37
marine communities

stuff about marine communities
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  1. use appendanges to strain particulate food matter from the water
    suspension feeders
  2. Draw water in through siphon, filter food particles and spits out water
    • Filter feeders
    • ex: clams, scallops
  3. process mud, removing food particles
    • Deposit feeders
    • ex: sand dollars
  4. seek out primary producers as food
    Active herbivores (grazers)

    ex. sea urchin, limpets
  5. seek out animal prey
    active carnivores
  6. with unlimited resources, the shape of the population curve would be
  7. The resources are limited, so populations are resisted, resulting in a what shaped curve
  8. The size of the population that the community can support under a stable set of environmental conditions
    carrying capacity
  9. The number of individuals per unit area (or volume)
    Population Density
  10. The position of one individual has no relation to position of another
    Random distribution
  11. individuals occur in tight groups or clumps
    • Clumped distribution
    • ex. plankton and snails, most organisms are like this
  12. Individuals are distributed in a manner that maximizes the space between each one
    Uniform distribution
  13. undisturbed community (both ecological and evolutionary time scale):
    species create niches for more species to occupy

    Greater Distrubance, Less Diversity

    Competition= reduction in diversity
    competitive exclusion forces species out of community
    Competitive equilibrium Theory
  14. Random disturbances prevents competitive exclusion...diversity increases with increasing disturbance until a certain point
    non-equilibrium theory
  15. Type of Substrate- soft (mud or sand) hard(rock)
    Degree of Wave energy- High energy (rock) Low energy (Sand or mud)
  16. 3 living strategies
    • Attached
    • Free Living
    • burrowing
  17. Large organisms like a lobster with high biomass and low productivity
  18. Medium Sized organisms like a clame with low biomass and high productivity
  19. small sized organisms with low biomass and high productivity like round worms
  20. area between high and low tides
    intertidal zone
  21. Intertidal zone has..
    high productivity and high biodiversity
  22. organisms within the intertidal zone must withstand what three factors
    • desiccation
    • wave shock
    • drastic temp and salinity changes
  23. Zonation results from what three factors
    • 1. Preferential larval settlement and adult movement:
    • 2. Different physiological tolherance: higher intertidal more tolherant of desiccation, reduced feeding, hypoxia, and extreme temp swings
    • 3. Biological interactions like competitionand predation:

    • –Rocky shores are space limited – species
    • capable of overgrowing or undercutting others may dominate

    • –Marine predators are limited by tidal cycle
    • – usually limits predation to lower part
  24. Intertidal zone alternates between marine and terrestrial zones...changes that cause 4 things
    • heat stress
    • desiccation
    • hypoxia
    • reduced feeding oppurtunities
  25. body size and shape help deal with
    heat stress
  26. adaptations to hypoxia include..
    • reduced metabolic rates
    • blood pigments with higher oxygen affinity
    • air breathing
  27. wave shock could...
    • 1.Abrasion
    • – particles in suspension or floating debris scrape delicate structures

    • 2.Pressure
    • – hydrostatic pressure of a breaking wave could break or damage structures

    • 3.Pressure
    • Drag – directional force of water movement may rip apart support structures or
    • dislodge holdfasts
  28. Sediment grain size determines distribution of animals, grain size..
    increases with increasing energy
  29. Soft sediment burrowers use ____ and ___
    mechanisms to move through the substrate
    hydromechanical and simple digging
  30. how do interstitial animals adapt to water flow and life in small places?
    simple body plans, a wormlike shape, or adhering to particles
  31. Live ON surfaces
  32. Live IN sediments and rocks
  33. interstitial animals live...
    in spaces between sand grains ex. worm, crustacean,
  34. estuaries...
  35. Salt marshes and estuaries
    • are rich in nutrients and have abundant sunlight. This results in very high
    • primary production, yielding an abundant food supply to support many organisms.
    • However the organisms in
    • these communities must cope with fluctuating salinity. The water in these areas
    • is often brackish -- a mixture of fresh water and sea water. These environments
    • also
  36. ___ has the greatest biodiversity of all marine communities. More than 1,000,000 species
    coral reef
  37. An adpatation of the deep sea, where food is scarce, of the anglerfish and gulper eels...
    swallow prey bigger than themselves
  38. Characteristics of deep sea floor organisms
    • benthic deposit feeders
    • slow metabolisms
    • don't require a lot of food
    • live a long time, 100 years
  39. Deep sea biomass is only ___ of biomass in shallow water
  40. What uses hydrogen sulfide that comes out of smokers to as energy?
    chemosynthetic bacteria. They are primary producers, survive without sunlight
  41. Close and prolonged interaction between species
  42. Both species benefit
    mutualism...corals and algae, clownfish and anemone
  43. one benefits, other is not helped nor harmed
    Commensalism..ex barnicle and seaturtle
  44. One is benefited, other harmed...most common