Psy 110.5

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Psy 110.5
2012-06-10 20:27:08

Chapter 5
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  1. In a classical conditioning, the repeated pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to produce a conditioned response.
  2. 1925-Present. Conducted a series of classic studies on how children model agressive behavior towards an inflatable
    Bobo doll and developed the concept of oberservational learning.
    Albert Bandura
  3. Modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response.
    Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
  4. 1904-1990. Proponent of behaviorist perspective and pioneer in the field of operant conditioning.
    B.F. Skinner
  5. The use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior.
    Behavior Modification
  6. The use of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses, such as blood pressure and relaxation, under voluntary control.
  7. Referring to the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning.
    Biological Preparedness
  8. Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex.
    Classical Conditioning
  9. Learning model that focuses on the mental processes required for the acquisition of new behaviors.
    Cognitive Learning
  10. Modern theory in psychology that focuses on mental processes and the study of conscious experience.
    Cogntivie Perspective
  11. Emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.
    Conditional Emotional Response
  12. Learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus.
    Conditioned Response (CR)
  13. Stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus.
    Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
  14. Development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.
    Conditioned Taste Aversions
  15. The reinforcement of each and every correct response.
    Continous Reinforcement
  16. Any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement.
    Discriminative Stimulus
  17. 1874-1949. Discovered the law of effect and laid the groundwork for operant conditioning through his work with puzzle boxes.
    Edward Thorndike
  18. 1886-1959. Developed several theories of cognitive learning including the concept of latent learning.
    Edward Tolman
  19. In classical conditioning, the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
  20. In operant conditioning, the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal of a reinforcer.
  21. Schedule or reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same.
    Fixed Interval
  22. Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same.
    Fixed Ratio
  23. Occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is pared with a neutral sitmulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.
    Higher-Order Conditioning
  24. The sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, such as an "aha!" experience, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly.
    Insight Learning
  25. Tendency for an animal's behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns.
    Instinctive Drift
  26. 184901936. A Russian physiologist who first described the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning.
    Ivan Pavlov
  27. Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful.
    Latent Learning
  28. Law stating that if a response is followed by a pleasurable consquence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend to not be repeated.
    Law of Effect
  29. The tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past.
    Learned Helplessness
  30. Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience or practice.
  31. Referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior.
    Learning/Performance Distinction
  32. 1942-Present. Cognitive learning theorist who conducted a series of studies on learned helplessness in dogs.
    Martin Seligman
  33. The reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.
    Negative Reinforcement
  34. A form of biodfeedback using brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior.
  35. Simulus that has no effect on the desired response.
    Neutral Stimulus (NS)
  36. Learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
    Observational Learning
  37. Any behavior that is voluntary.
  38. The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses.
    Operant Conditioning
  39. The reinforcement of some, but not all, of the correct responses.
    Partial Reinforcement
  40. The tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responsed to be very resistant to extinction.
    Partial Reinforcment Effect
  41. The reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasure stimulus.
    Positive Reinforcement
  42. Any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst or touch.
    Primary Reinforcers
  43. Any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again.
  44. The punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus
    Punishment by Application
  45. The punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus.
    Punishment by Removal
  46. The strengthening of a response that occurs when that response is followed by a pleasureable consequence.
  47. Any event or object tht, when following a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again.
  48. Timing of reinforcement for correct responses.
    Schedule of Reinforcement
  49. Any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a pirmary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens or gold stars.
    Secondary Reinforcers
  50. The reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.
  51. The reappearance of alearned response after extinction has occurred.
    Spontaneous Recovery
  52. The tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
    Stimulus Discrimination
  53. The tendency to response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.
    Stimulus Generalization
  54. Original theory in which Pavolv stated that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the uncondtioned stimulus by being paired closing together.
    Stimulus Substitution
  55. Small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior.
    Successive Approximation
  56. Behavior modification technique where subject is removed from all sources of attention. An example of punishment by removal.
  57. Type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens that can be used to acquire items of value.
    Token Economy
  58. An involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
    Unconditioned Response (UR)
  59. A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response.
    Uncondtioned Stimulus (US)
  60. Schedule or reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event.
    Variable Interval
  61. Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event.
    Variable Ratio
  62. Classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.
    Vicarious Conditioning
  63. 1887-1967. Co-founder of Gestalt psychology, studied problem-solving in animals and promoted the concept of insight learning.
    Wolfgang Kohler