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The Geiger counter
- 1. type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation. T
- -detect the emission of nuclear radiation: alpha particles, beta particles or gamma rays.
1.Particles or electromagnetic waves that are energetic enough to detach electrons from atoms or molecules
- High doses: Radiation poisioning
- Low does: DNA damage, cancer
Radiation Exposure Units
A lethal full-body dose of radiation for a human is...
4-5 Sv or 400-500 Rems
Three Mile Island 1979
- 1.Pressurized water reactor near Harrisburg,PA
- 2. Cooling water shut off, and hot core became high and dry
- 3. hot uranium fuel reacted with zirconium, rupture fuel rods, melting the core
Chernobyl Disaster 1986
- 1.explosion that blew 5% of the reactors fuel into the atmosphere
- 2. 30 operators and firefighters were killed by radiation within three months. 237 people suffered acute raduation sickness
- 3. a 30 km human exclusion zone remains around the reactor
Fukushima Daiichi 2011
- 1. Japan Power plant
- 2. After 9.0 earthquake, tsunami disabled the plants emergency diesel generators
- 3.Hydrogen explosion
Nuclear waste storage options
- 1. Deep hole burial
- 2. Island disposal
- 3. Space disposal
The minimum mass of fissile material necessary to sustain a nuclear chain reaction
1.Conventional explosives with added radioactive material
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