E&S:Lecture 15

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  1. The Geiger counter
    • 1. type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation. T
    • -detect the emission of nuclear radiation: alpha particles, beta particles or gamma rays.
  2. Ionizing Radiation
    1.Particles or electromagnetic waves that are energetic enough to detach electrons from atoms or molecules

    • High doses: Radiation poisioning
    • Low does: DNA damage, cancer
  3. Radiation Exposure Units
  4. Absorbed dose units
  5. A lethal full-body dose of radiation for a human is...
    4-5 Sv or 400-500 Rems
  6. Three Mile Island 1979
    • 1.Pressurized water reactor near Harrisburg,PA
    • 2. Cooling water shut off, and hot core became high and dry
    • 3. hot uranium fuel reacted with zirconium, rupture fuel rods, melting the core
  7. Chernobyl Disaster 1986
    • 1.explosion that blew 5% of the reactors fuel into the atmosphere
    • 2. 30 operators and firefighters were killed by radiation within three months. 237 people suffered acute raduation sickness
    • 3. a 30 km human exclusion zone remains around the reactor
  8. Fukushima Daiichi 2011
    • 1. Japan Power plant
    • 2. After 9.0 earthquake, tsunami disabled the plants emergency diesel generators
    • 3.Hydrogen explosion
  9. Nuclear waste storage options
    • 1. Deep hole burial
    • 2. Island disposal
    • 3. Space disposal
  10. Critical Mass
    The minimum mass of fissile material necessary to sustain a nuclear chain reaction
  11. Dirty Bombs
    1.Conventional explosives with added radioactive material
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E&S:Lecture 15
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