BIOL 100 exam 2 - CH 21

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  1. Complimentary Base Pairing
    the process by which specific bases are matched

    adenine with thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA) and cytosine with guanine

    each pair is held together by weak hydrogen bonds
  2. DNA Replication
    the copying process that begins when an enzyme breaks the weak hydrogen bonds that hold together the paired bases that make up nucleotide strands of the double helix, thereby "unzipping" and unwinding the strands
  3. Semiconservative Replication
    replication of DNA in which the 2 strands of a DNA molecule become separated and each serves as a template for a new double-stranded DNA

    each new Molecule consists of one old strand and one new strand
  4. Transcription
    the process by which a complementary single-stranded messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule is formed from a single-stranded DNA template.

    as a result, the information in DNA is transferred to RNA
  5. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    type of RNA synthesized from and complimentary to a region of DNA that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the amino acid order in the protein

    it carries the DNA instructions for synthesizing a particular protein
  6. transfer RNA (tRNA)
    acts as an interpreter between the nucleic acid language of mRNA and the amino acid language of proteins
  7. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    most abundant form of RNA

    type of RNA that combines with proteins to form the ribosomes, structures on which protein synthesis occurs
  8. Promoter
    a specific region on DNA next to the "start" gene that controls the expression of the gene
  9. RNA Polymerase
    one of the group of enzymes necessary for the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template.

    It binds with the promoter on DNA that aligns the appropriate RNA nucleotides and links them together
  10. Translation
    protein synthesis

    the process of converting the nucleotide language of messenger RNA (mRNA) into the amino acid language of a protein
  11. Genetic Code
    the base triplets in DNA that specify the amino acids that go into proteins or that function as start or stop signals in protein synthesis

    used to convert the linear sequence of bases in DNA to the sequence of amino acids in proteins
  12. Codon
    a 3-base sequence on messenger RNA (mRNA) that specifies 1 of the 20 common amino acids or the beginning/end of the protein chain
  13. Anticodon
    a 3-base sequence on transfer RNA (rRNA) that binds to the complementary base pairs of a codon on the mRNA
  14. Polysome
    a cluster of ribosomes simultaneously translating the same messenger RNA (mRNA) strand
  15. Mutation
    a change in the base sequence of the DNA of a gene
  16. Genetic Engineering
    the manipulation of genetic material for human practical purposes
  17. Biotechnology
    the industrial or commercial use or alteration of living organisms, cells, or molecules to achieve specific useful goals
  18. Recombinant DNA
    segments of DNA from 2 sources that have been combined in vitro and transferred to cells in which their information can be expressed
  19. Vector
    a biological carrier, usually a plasmid or a virus, that ferries the recombinant DNA to the host cell
  20. Restriction Enzyme
    an enzyme that recognizes a specific sequence of bases in DNA and cuts the DNA into 2 strands at that sequence

    used to prepare DNA containing "sticky ends" during the creation of recombinant replication of viruses that infect the bacteria
  21. Plasmid
    small, circular piece of self-replicating DNA that is separate from the chromosome and found in bacteria

    often used as vectors in recombinant DNA research
  22. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    a technique used to amplify (increase) the quantity of DNA in vitro using primers, DNA polymerase, and nucleotides
  23. Gene Therapy
    treating a genetic disease by inserting healthy functional genes into the body cells that are still affected by the faulty gene
  24. Genome
    the complete set of DNA of an organism, including all of its genes
  25. Genomics
    the study of entire genomes and the interactions of the genes with one anothher and the environment
Card Set:
BIOL 100 exam 2 - CH 21
2012-06-11 08:00:19
Biology DNA Biotechnology

CH 21: DNA and Biotechnology
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