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What does the urinary system consist of? ( organs )
- Two kidneys
- Two Ureters
- One bladder
- One urethra
Where does the kidneys lie?
Both sides of vetebral column in the upper posterior abdomen.
- Posterior to the lower portion of the liver on the right.
- Below the spleen on the left.
Where does the ureters lie?
- anterior to to the respective kidney.
- they enter to the posterolateral aspect of the bladder.
Label A B C D E
- A. Left Kidney
- B. LEft Ureter
- C. Urinary bladder
- D. Symphysis pubis
- E. Urethra
Which kidney is longer? Left or the rght one?
The left kidney s longer and narrowe than the right.
Due to the presence of the psoas muscles, what happens to the kidney?
Th ekindeys longitiduinal plane of hte kidneys for ma vertical 20 degree angle to the midsaggital plane.
Psoas muscle also causes them to rotate backward 20 degrees.
Each kidney is surrounded by what beside the rb cage?
Each kindey is surrounded by a mass of adipose tssue or perirenal fat.
What is the anatomical locations of the kidney?
Kidneys lie midway between the xiphoid process and the illiac crest.
Left kidney lies 1 inch higher tha the right ( Top of it at T11- T 12 )
Bottom of the right kidney lies at L3
What is nephrotoptosis?
Downward displacement of the kidney
Why do you obliqie position for viewing the kidneys?
Because the kidneys are rotated back 30 degrees.
Describe the movement of blood to and from the kidney.
Blood gets to the kidneye from the abdominal aorta via left and right renal arteries.
Each renal artery branches and forms capillary networks in ecah kdney.
Then they blood from the kidneys return to the circulatory system via renal veins.
Then the renal veins connect to the inferior vena cava to return the lbood to the right side of the heart.
What is a hilum?
Longitudinal fissure along the medial border of each kidney
What is the kidney divded into?
Divided into upper and lower poles
Whati s the three functions of the kidney?
- 1. removes nitrogenous waste.
- 2. regulates water levle in body.
- 3. regulates acid base balacnea and electrolyte levels.
What nitrogenous wastes are filtered in the kidneys?
Waste products such as urea and creatinine.
What happesn when you build up too much urea and retinine ( nitrogenous wastes ) in your blood?
- A. Renal papilla
- B. Renal column
- C. Renal sinuses
- D. Minor calyx
- E. Major calyx
- F. Renal pelvis
- G. Fibrous capsule
- H. Cortex
- I. Medulla
- J. Ureter
What is fibrous capsule?
Outer layer of the kidneys
Whats under the fibruous capsule
What is under the cortex?
medulla formed by 8-18 conical renal parymids.
The cortex dips between the pyramids to form..
renal columns which extend into the renal sinuses
What are renal pryamids?
collection of tubules that converge at the opening of renal papilla and drain into the minor calyx.
What are minor calyces?
They unite to form major calyces
What do major calyces do?
Unite to form the renal pelvis which narrwos to contiue as the ureter.
What is renal parenchyma?
General term used to describe total functional portion of the kidneys.
What is the structuural and function unit of the kidneys?
Nephron unit ( microscopic )
There are small arteries in the cortex that form what?
- form tiny cappilay tufts called glomeruli
- This is where blood is initially filtered.
Where is blood filtered?
- A. Glomerulus
- B. Glomerular Capsule
- C. Loop of henlie
- D. Renal artery
- E. REnal vein
- F. Collecting TUbe
- G. Goes towards minor calyx
What supplies and takes away blood from glomeruli?
- Afferent arterioles supply blood to glomeruli
- Efferent arterioles take blood away.
What surrounds each glomeruli?
- Surrounded by glomerular capsule. (bowmans capsule)
- The glomerula capsule is the proximal portion of each nephron unit
How does the glomerular filtrate travel from bowmans capsule?
Bowmands capsule > Proximal convoluted tube > descending and ascenidng limbs of loop of henle > distal convoluted tubule > coolecting tubule > minor calyx
- A. Efferent arteriole
- B. Glomerulus
- C. Afferent aretriole
- D. Distal convoluted tubule
- E. Loop of henle
- F. Bowmand capsule
- G. Proximal convoluted tubule
- H. Descending limb
- I. Asencidng limb
- J. Collecting tubule
- K. Into minor calyx
When filtrate is reaches the minor calyx, what does it become? ( What is it termed )
It becomes urine
Between the bowemands capsule and the mnor caluces, hwo much of the fltrate is reabsorbed into the kindeys?
99% of the filtrate is reabsorbed.
The loop of henle and collecting tubules arel ocated prmarily where?
- A. Renal Parechyna
- B. Renal pelvis of right kidney
- C. Right ureter
- D. Urinary bladder
Whati sthe diameter for ureters?
Varies from 1mm to 1 cm
Where is the ureter constricted?
- 1. Ureteropelvic junction
- 2. Brim of the pelvis ( illiac blood vessels cross over the uretrs )
- 3. Ureterovescial junction ( most constricted )
- A. Right urter
- B. Ureteral opening
- C. Trigone
- D. Urethra
- E. Prostate gland
Describe the bladder when its empty and filled.
- WHen empty it is flattened
- When filled, it is oval shaped
What is the Trigone?
muscular area formed by the entrance of thw 2 ureters and the exit site of the urethra.
firmly attached to the floor of the pelvis.
What gland surrounds the proximal urethra in males?
The prostate gland.
How much urine is needed in order to give desire to void?
250 mL of urine
What is the act of voiding called?
Micturation or Urination
Whati s the capacity of the bladder?
Varries from 350 mL to 500 mL
What is involutntary urination?
What are the two most common side affects after injection of iodinated contrasst?
Hot flasshes and metallic taste in the mouth.
What are the normal levels of creatine and BUN? ( Blood, Urea, and Nitrogen )
- Creatinine: .6 to 1.5 mg/dl
- BUN: 8 to 25 mG
What is glucophage?
Drug given for magament of nonisulin dependant diabtes and polycstic ovarian syndrome.
Why shouldnt you take glucophage 48 hours before and after cotnrast media procedure?
Combination of iodinated contrast and glucophage prove to increase risk of contrast media-induced renal failure
What are some mild reactions to contrat media?
- 1. Nausea
- 2. Hives
- 3. Itching
- 4. Sneezing
- 5. Extravasation
- 6. Vasovagal repsonse.
What are some modereate reactions of contrast media/
- 1. Excessive hives
- 2. Rapid heartbeat
- 3. Giant hives
- 4. Exvessive vomitting
What are soem severe reactions to contrast mieda?
- 1. Vety low BP
- 2. Cadiac or respriatory arrest
- 3. Loss of conciousness
- 4. Convulsions
- 5. Laryngeal edema
- 6. Profound shock
- 7. Difficulty in breathing
- 8. Bluish discoloration.
What are rurteric compressions used for?
Enhances the filling of pelvicalcyeal system