Chapter 4

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  1. Fruit sugar (fructose) is less fattening than table sugar (sucrose)
    *False, they are equally fattening because they have the same number of calories per gram.

    Foods high in complex carbohydrate (starch and fiber) are good choices when you are trying to lose weight.

    People with diabetes should never eat sugar.
    * False, they need to watch the total carbohydrate in their diets, but they can choose foods with sugar as a small portion of that total.

    The primary role of dietary fiber is to provide energy.
    *False, fiber's primary role is to provide bulk for the digestive tract.

    The brain demands the sugar glucose to fuel it's activities.

    Honey and refined sugar are the same as far as the body is concerned.

    Of all the components of foods that increase one's risk of diseases, sugars are probably the biggest troublemakers.
    *False, fat is the biggest troublemaker.

    Breads that are brown in color have more fiber than white bread.
    *False, a brown color does not mean the bread is high in fiber, the color can be from molasses or caramel. To be in high in fiber the label must say whole grain or whole wheat not simply wheat bread, whole grain flour should be listed first in the ingredients.

    Some foods labeled sugar free actually contain calorie bearing sugars.

    Artificial sweeteners are safe to use in moderation.
  2. People who need to lose weight must limit high calorie foods, but they are ill advised to try to avoid all carbohydrates.
    Excessive calories are fattening and the fat, not the carbohydrate raises the calorie count the most.
  3. Compounds made of single sugars or multiple sugars and composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
    C6H12O6 (CHO)
  4. "It's not the potato that is fattening, it's the butter, sour cream or gravy that they put on us!"
  5. The primary role of carbohydrates is to provide the body with __
    energy (calories)
  6. For certain body systems, like the brain and nervous system, carbohydrates are the preferred energy source.
    Carbohydrates are the ideal fuel for the body.
  7. There are only two alternative calorie sources:
    protein and fat
  8. Protein rich foods are usually expensive and provide no advantage over carbohydrates when used to provide fuel for the body.
  9. Fat rich foods might be less expensive but fat cannot be used efficiently as fuel by the brain and nerves, and diets high in fat are associated with many chronic disease.
  10. Of all the possible food-energy sources what is preferred?
  11. What is the preferred energy source for the brain and nervous system?
  12. In the presence of chlorophyll and the energy of the sun, plants make glucose through a process known as:
  13. Glucose is made of water and carbon dioxide.
  14. Normal blood glucose levels are important for feeling of well-being.
  15. When your glucose becomes too high, you get sleepy.
    When your glucose becomes too low, you get weak and shaky.
  16. Only when blood glucose is within the normal range can you feel energetic and alert.
  17. Carbohydrate rich foods are obtained almost exclusively from:
  18. Roles of Carbohydrates:
    • Provide energy; glucose provides a quick source of energy; glucose is the preferred fuel for the brain and nerves.
    • Provide an energy reserve; glycogen in muscle and liver can be broken down to glucose
    • Serve as raw materials; sugars can be converted into other body compounds such as amino acids - the building blocks of protein.
    • Contribute flavor and texture to foods; sugars provide sweetness.
  19. Roles of Fibers:
    • Contribute to digestive tract health
    • Maintain normal bowel function
    • Lower blood cholesterol by binding bile
    • Slow the absorption of glucose
    • Provide bulk and satiety (feeling of fullness)
    • Enhance weight loss and maintenance of a healthy body weight
  20. __ is the only animal derived food that contains significant amounts of carbohydrate.
  21. Carbohydrates are divided into the categories:
    • Complex Carbohydrates
    • Simple Carbohydrates
  22. Complex carbohydrates include:
    starch and fiber.
  23. Starches make up a large part of the world's food supply most as:
  24. Staples of starch:
    wheat, rice, corn
  25. Fiber is found abundantly in:
    plants, especially the outer portions of cereal grains and in fruits, legumes and most veggies.
  26. Simple carbohydrates include naturally occurring sugars in fresh fruits, in some vegetables, in milk and milk products and as added sugars in concentrated form, such as in honey, corn syrup or sugar in the sugar bowl.
  27. Long chains of sugars (glucose) arranged as starch or fiber, also called polysaccharides.
    Complex carbohydrates
  28. The single sugars (monosaccharides) and the pairs of sugars (disaccharides) linked together.
    Simple carbohydrates
  29. The building block of carbohydrate; a single sugar used in both plant and animal tissues as quick energy; a single sugar is known as monosaccharide.
  30. All carbohydrates are composed of single sugars - known as monosaccharides alone or in carious combinations.
    And all carbohydrates but fiber can be converted to glucose in the body.
  31. Glucose
  32. Sucrose
  33. Glucose + Fructose
    Sucrose (sweetest)
  34. Glucose + Galactose
  35. Glucose + Glucose
  36. Starches
    Dietary fiber (insoluble and soluble fibers)
  37. Dextrose, blood sugar
    Food sources: fruits sweeteners
  38. Fruit sugar, levulose
    Food source: fruits , honey, high fructose corn syrup
  39. Food source: part of lactose, found in milk
  40. Table sugar
    Food source: beet and cane sugar, fruit, most sweets
  41. Milk sugar
    Food source: milk and milk products
  42. Malt sugar
    Food source: sprouted seeds, found in beer
  43. Starch can be broken down during food processing to shorter chains of glucose units known as
  44. Dextrins
    Food source: potatoes, legumes, corn, wheat, rye and other grains
  45. Roughage, bulk
    Food source: whole grains, legumes, fruits, veggies
    Dietary fiber
  46. Cellulose, hemicellulose
    Food source: wheat products, brown rice, veggies, legumes, seeds
    Insoluble fibers
  47. pectins, gums, mucilages, some hemicelluloes
    Food sources: oat products, barely, legumes, fruits veggies, seeds
    Soluble fibers
  48. Glucose is not a very sweet sugar but plants can rearrange its atoms to form another sugar, __ , which is sweet to the taste.
  49. Fructose is found mostly in:
    fruits, honey, part of table sugar
  50. Glucose and fructose are the most common single sugars in nature.
  51. Double sugars are known as:
  52. When glucose and fructose are bonded together they form:
    sucrose, table sugar.
  53. Sugar cane and sugar beets are two sources from which sucrose is purified and granulated to various extents to provide the brown, white and powdered sugars available in the supermarket.
    Sucrose is one of the two most caloric ingredients of candy, cakes, pastries, frosting, cookies, presweetened ready to eat cereals, and other concentrated sweets.
  54. Two glucose sugars:
  55. Major sugar in milk, double sugar made by mammals from galactose and glucose units.
  56. A human baby is born with digestive enzymes necessary to split lactose into two simple sugars - glucose and galactose - so that they can be absorbed by the body.
  57. Lactose also facilitates the absorption of calcium and promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestines.
    Breast milk and infant formula which contain lactose are ideal foods for babies because they provide a simple easily digested carbohydrate to meet an infant's energy needs.
  58. When you eat a food containing lactose, the enzyme lactase in your small intestine first splits the double sugar into single sugars so that they can enter your bloodstream.
    Many people lose the ability to digest lactose during or after childhood. Thereafter these people may experience nausea, bloating, abd pain or cramping, diarrhea, or gas after drinking mil,k or eating lactose containing products, these conditions are created because when the intestinal bacteria use the lactose for energy they produce gas and other products that irritate the intestine. This condition is called lactose intolerance.
  59. Many people with lactose intolerance are able to consume small amounts of lactose without symptoms. For the, lower lactose foods such as yogurt, acidophilius milk, aged cheeses, cottage cheese or prepared milk products that have been treated with an enzyme to reduce lactose may be tolerated.
    Lactose reduced milk, enzyme solutions containing lactase for treating dairy products, and lactase tablets can help reduce the symptoms of lactose intolerance.
  60. Choose yogurt with "active cultures" - the bacteria in these products help the body to digest the lactose found in yogurt.
  61. Inability to digest lactose as a result of a lack of the necessary enzyme lactase.
    Lactose intolerance
  62. Complex carbohydrates include starch and fiber.
    All starchy foods are plant foods.
  63. Starch is a:
    polysaccharide, made up of many glucose units bonded together, 3,000 or so in each molecule of starch. Shorter carbohydrate chains composed of 3 to 10 glucose molecules are called oliogosaccharides.
  64. Richest starch sources are:
    grains, peas, and beans.
  65. Most societies have a primary or staple grain that provides most of the people's food energy.
    • Asian: rice
    • US Europe Canada: wheat
    • Others may include: corn, millet, rye, barely, oats
  66. A second important source of starch is the:
    legumes, dried beans and peas such as butter beans, kidney beans, pinto beans, navy beans, black eyed peas, chick peas, lentils, and soy beans.
  67. Root vegetables (such as yams) and tubers (such as potatoes) are other sources of starch that are important in many societies.
  68. Foods such as potatoes, dried beans and peas, rice and whole grain breads, cereals, and pastas are especially nutritious because of their starch, fiber, vitamin and mineral content and because they are virtually fat and cholesterol free.
  69. A plant polysaccharide composed of hundred of glucose molecules, digestible by human beings.
  70. Long chain of 10 or more glucose molecules linked together in straight or branched chains, another term for complex carbohydrates.
  71. Foods that are far removed from their original state or wholeness may lack significant nutrients.
  72. A grain used frequently or daily in the diet.
    Staple grain
  73. Refers to the process by which the coarse parts of food products are removed. For example, refining wheat into flour involves removing three of the four parts of the kernel; the caff, the bran and the germ leaving only the endosperm.
  74. Refers to the process by which the B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid and the mineral iron are added to refined grains and grain products at levels specified by law.
  75. Term for foods to which nutrients that weren't there have been added. Typically, commonly eaten foods are chosen for fortification with added nutrients to help prevent a deficiency (iodized salt, milk with vitamin D) or to reduce the risk of chronic disease (juices with added calcium)
  76. Refers to a grain that is milled in its entirety (all but the husk) not refined. These include wheat, corn, rice, rye, oats, amaranth, barley, buckwheat, sorghum, and millet. Two others bulgur and couscous are processes from wheat grains.
    Whole grain
  77. The part of the wheat plant that is made into flour and then into bread and other baked goods is the:
  78. The wheat kernel (a whole grain) has four main parts:
    • Germ: part that grows into a wheat plant and contains concentrated food to supprt the new life, rich in protein vitamins and minerals.
    • Endosperm: soft white inside portion of the kernel containing starch and protein.
    • Bran: protective coating around the kernel (which is similar in function to the shell of a nut), rich in nutrients and fiber
    • Husk: aka chaff; unusable for most purposes except for animal feed.
  79. The nutrients present in the wheat plant at harvest are not always present in the wheat products you eat.
  80. The Enrichement Act of 1942 standardized the return of these four lost nutrients to commercial flour (iron, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin)
    This legislation was amended in 1996 to include folic acid, a form of the B vitamin folate, which is considered important in the prevention of certain birth defects.
  81. Whole grain products are preferable to enriched products.
    If bread is a staple food in your diet if you eat it every day, you are well advised to learn to like the hearty flavor of whole grain bread.
  82. Complex Carbohydrates: Fiber
  83. The fibers of a plant form the supporting structures of its leaves, stems, and seeds.
    Most fibers are polysaccharides and just as starch is, but with different bonds between the glucose units - bonds that cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes.
  84. The term fiber is used by almost everyone as though it represents a single entity. Fiber was known generations ago as "roughage".
    Strings of celery, skins of corn kernels, and the membranes separating the segments in citrus fruits.
  85. The bonds that hold the units of fiber together cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes, but some can be broken by the bacteria that reside in the human digestive tract.
  86. Fiber has two forms:
    • Insoluble fiber
    • Soluble fiber
  87. Foods rich in insoluble fiber:
    • bran
    • brown rice
    • green beans
    • green peas
    • many veggies
    • nuts
    • rice
    • seeds
    • skins/peels of fruits and veggies
    • wheat bran
    • whole grain products
  88. Foods rich in soluble fiber:
    • barley
    • broccoli
    • carrots
    • corn
    • fruits (citrus)
    • legumes
    • oat bran
    • oats
    • potatoes
    • rye
  89. Dietary fiber is found only in plant foods, such a fruits, veggies, legumes and whole grains and that is the part of plant foods that human enzymes cannot digest.
  90. Insoluble and soluble fibers have different effects in the body, it is important to eat a variety of high fiber foods to get both types.
    Inadequate levels of fiber in the diet are associated with several disease whereas the consumption of recommended levels of fiber offers many health benefits.
  91. The ingestible residues of food, composed mostly of polysaccharide, the best known of the fibers are cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and gums.
  92. Includes the fiber types called cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. These DO NOT dissolve in water.
    Insoluble fiber
  93. Includes the fiber types called pectin, gums, mucilages, some hemicellulolses and algal substance (ex: carrageenan) These either dissolve or swell when placed in water.
    Soluble fibers
  94. Obesity:
    • Fiber: insoluble/soluble
    • Health benefits: replaces calories from fat, provides satiety and prolongs eating time because of chewiness of food
  95. Digestive tract disorders (constipation, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids)
    • Fiber: insoluble
    • Health Benefits: provides bulk and aids intestinal motility, binds bile acids
  96. Colon cancer:
    • Fiber: insoluble
    • Health Benefits: speeds transit time through intestines and may protect against prolonged exposure to carinogens
  97. Diabetes:
    • Fiber: soluble
    • Health Benefits: may improve blood sugar tolerance by delaying glucose absorption
  98. Heart disease:
    • Fiber: soluble
    • Health Benefits: may lower blood cholesterol by slowing absorption of cholesterol and binding bile
  99. Diseases and conditions associated with lack of fiber in the diet:
    • appendicitis
    • atherosclerosis
    • colon cancer
    • constipation
    • diabetes
    • diverticulosis
    • hemorrhoids
    • obesity
  100. Both types of fiber can help with weight control, in the stomach they convey a feeling of fullness because they absorb water, and some of them delay the emptying of the stomach so that you feel full longer.
    If you eat many high fiber foods, you are likely to eat fewer empty calorie foods such as concentrated fats and sweets.
  101. Insoluble fiber (type in wheat bran) holds water in the colon, thereby increasing bulk and stimulating the muscles of the digestive tract so that they retain their health and tone.
    The toned muscles can more easily move waste products through the colon for excretion. This prevents constipation, hemorrhoids and diverticulosis
  102. Insoluble fiber may also speed up the passage of food through the digestive tract, thus shortening the time of exposure of the tissue to agents in food that might cause certain cancers.
  103. Soluble fiber (type in beans and oats) are credited with reducing the risks of heart disease and artery disease - atherosclerosis - by lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood.
    The products of bacterial digestion of soluble fiber in the colon are absorbed in the body and may inhibit the body's production of cholesterol as well as enhance the clearance of cholesterol from the blood.
  104. Cholesterol levels may also decrease if food sources of soluble fiber (barley, lentils, peas, beans, oat bran or psyllium enriched cereal) are used a part of a heart healthy low cholesterol diet.
    Psyllium: seed husk, an ingredient in certain cereals and bulk forming laxatives, contains both soluble and insoluble fibers.
  105. Certain soluble fibers also bind to cholesterol compounds and carry them out of the body with the feces, thus lowering the body's cholesterol level.
    Soluble fibers also improve the body's handling of glucose, even for people with diabetes, perhaps by slowing the digestion or absorption rate of carbohydrates. Blood glucose levels therefore stay moderate, helping to prevent symptoms of diabetes or hypoglycemia.
  106. Wheat bran, which is composed mostly of cellulose, has no cholesterol lowering effects, where as oat bran and the fibers found in legumes, carrots, apples, and grapefruits do lower blood cholesterol.
    Fiber of wheat bran in whole wheat bread is one of the most effective stool softening fibers and thus can help to prevent constipation and hemorrhoids.
  107. A food that is altered as little as possible from the plant or animal tissue from which it was taken; examples are milk, oats, potatoes, and apples.
    Whole food
  108. The more a food resembles the original, farm grown product, the more nutritious it is likely to be. During processing, some nutrients may be lost, and food producers often add nutrient-poor ingredients such as sugar, salt and fat.
    People who change their diet and begin to eat fewer processed foods and more whole food plant based products can expect many health benefits.
  109. __ carbohydrates are through to be our most valuable energy nutrient.
  110. USDA My Pyramid food guide illustrates the goal of healthy eating as a shift away from a diet based on high-protein, higher fat foods to one that uses more of the beneficial complex carbohydrates.
  111. According to the Dietary Guidelines at least half of the recommended grain servings consumed should be whole grains, because of their fiber content.
  112. Grain products are low in fat, unless fat is added in processing, in food preparation or at the table.
    • Good choices include:
    • Bagels
    • Bread-sticks
    • Lowfat crackers
    • Tortillas (not fried)
    • Couscous
    • English muffins
    • Enriched breads
    • Farina
    • Grits
    • Pancakes
    • Pastas
    • Popcorn (air popped)
    • Pretzels
    • Ready to eat cereals
    • Rice
    • Rice cakes
    • Taco shells.

    Remember to make at least half your selections from whole grains!
  113. Because fiber carries water out of the body, too much fiber can cause dehydration and intestinal discomfort. Iron is mainly absorbed early in the digestive system, it may limit the opportunity for absorption of iron and other nutrients.
    Binders in some fibers link chemically with minerals such as calcium and zinc making them unavailable for absorption and carrying them out of the body. Too much bulk from the diet could reduce the total amount of food consumed and cause deficiencies of both nutrients and energyj.
  114. A cluster of interrelated symptoms including obesity, HTN, abnormal blood lipids, and insulin resistance; highly associated with development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
    Metabolic syndrome
  115. Evidence suggests that people consuming diets rich in whole grain foods, including riber rich cereals have inproved insulin sensitivity and are less likely to develop metabolic syndrome.
  116. How to incorporate whole grains into your diet to achieve the maximum health benefits and protection from chornic disases:
    1.) Count to three. Consume three or more ounce equivalents of whole grain products per day with the rest of the recommened grains coming from enriched or whole grain products.

    2.) Keep it varied.

    3.) Check the label. Buy products that list a whole grain or whole wheat or other whole grain flour first on the label's ingredient list. If the label says "wheat flour" "enriched flour" or "degerminated cornmeal" it is not whole grain.
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Chapter 4
Chapter 4
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