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Presentism is a mode of literary or historical analysis in which present-day ideas and perspectives are anachronistically introduced into depictions or interpretations of the past. Some modern historians seek to avoid presentism in their work because they believe it creates a distorted understanding of their subject matter. Presentism is also a factor in the problematic question of history and moral judgments.
When was the coat of arms introduced in Canada? What was used before?
Coat of Arms was introduced at Confederation in 1867. Prior to that, the Royal Arms of the UK was used.
Translate: Desiderantes Meliorem Patriam
Desiring a Better Country
Desiring a Better Country in Latin?
Desiderantes Meliorem Patriam
Translate: A Mari Usque Ad Mare
From Sea to Sea
From Sea to Sea in Latin?
A Mari Usque Ad Mare
Which two Latin phrases are found on the Canadian Coat of Arms? Translation?
- Desiderantes Meliorem Patriam
- A Mari Usque Ad Mare
- Desiring a Better Country
- From Sea to Sea
When was the modern-day design for the Canadian Coat of Arms introduced? Why?
- Old design was too complex
When was the last redesign of the Canadian Coat of Arms made? What was added?
How long is the international border between Canada and the USA?
How much landmass does Canada have?
9.7 million km2
How many time zones are there in Canada? What are there names?
- Six Time Zones
Martime Provinces vs Atlantic Provinces
Maritime Provinces includes NB, NS, and PEI, but not NFL.
What is a major geographic challenge for agriculture in early Canada?
The Canadian Shield
Name the prime agricultural lands in early Canada.
- Area around Bay of Fundy
- St Lawrence Valley
- South-West Ontario
Which hominids settled North America?
Only Homo sapiens according to the geological record.
What is Berengia?
A land bridge between Alaska and Russia that existed during the last ice age and served as a method of travel for the earliest settlers of North America 12,000 years ago.
Who is Kennewick Man?
Kennewick Man is the name for the skeletal remains of a prehistoric (Paleo-Indian) man found on a bank of the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington, USA, on July 28, 1996. Examination of skeletal remains concludes controversially that Kennewick Man had some European ancestry, insinuating to a degree that early North America had greater diversity than seen during the centuries of modern day European contact. The conclusion is often disputed.
Woodland Period timeline? Which three cultures are included?
- Circa 1000 BCE - 1500 CE
- Adena Culture
- Hopewell Culture
- Mississippian Culture
What is the Woodland Period characterized by?
- Advanced Pottery
- Advanced Agriculture
- Mound Building
Adena Culture timeline?
1000 BCE - 200 CE
Hopewell Culture timeline?
300 CE - 700 CE
Mississippian Culture timeline?
600 CE - 1500 CE
Greatest mound buildin civilization?
What is Cahokia?
Large Mississippian city that thrived from 900-1250 CE.
Canadian north originally occupied by? What happened?
- Dorset People
- Extinct by 1500, displaced by Thule People, or modern-day Innuit who migrated from Siberia who had arrived after the Dorset but eventually outcompeted them.
Thule Culture timeline?
Circa 1000 BCE - 1600 CE
When did the Beothuk become extinct? Who was the last Beothuk?
What are the language families found in modern-day Canada First Nations? What is the Euro equivalent of a language family?
- Romance Languages are equivalent to each of the above.
Where does the term Red Indian likely come from?
The Beothuk were known to cover their bodies and homes with a red ochre.
Algonquian languages: Plains
- Fox [Sauk]
- Gros Ventres
Algonquian languages: Central
- Montagnais (dialect of Cree)
- Naskapi (dialect of Cree)
- Ottawa (dialect of Ojibwa)
- Algonquin (dialect of Ojibwa)
Algonquian languages: Eastern
- East Abenaki
- West Abenaki
- Unami (spoken by Delaware)
- Munsee (may be dialect of Unami)
Three groups of Iroquoian Language Family?
- Five Nations
Iroquoian language: Huronian
- Petun/Tobacco (dialect of Hurons)
- Neutral (dialect of Hurons)
- Cherokee (spoken in the south)
Iroquoian language: Laurentian
Iroquoian language: Five Nations
- Susquehannock (spoken in the central region)
- Tuscarora (spoken in the central region)
Which St Lawrence Iroquois villages became the cities of Quebec City and Montreal?
- Stadacona (Quebec City)
- Hochelaga (Montreal)
Who establishes New France? Year?
Samuel de Champlain in 1603
Another name for L'anse aux Meadows.
What did Vikings mean by Skraelings? Who were they referring to?
Skraelings means "wild people". Beothuk.
What are some motivations for European exploration across the Atlantic?
- Crusades opens up trade with Asia creating thirst for Asian goods
- Loss of Constantinople necessitates effort to find overseas route
- Reintroduction of Roman/Greek science and knowledge from Muslim European settlements brings about tech to help make overseas exploration feasible
Who was the first non-Viking explorer to come to North America? When? Where exactly?
- John Cabot, 1497
- NFL Coast
Which NW expeditions are important to remember?
- Franklin Expedition 1845 (failed)
- McClure Expedition 1850 (travelled partly by land)
- Amundsen Expedition 1906 (travelled entirely by water)
When did Cabot travel to Canada?
Which European explored NA following Cabot? When?
Whose two sons does Cartier capture during his first expedition?
Where does Cartier go on his second trip?
Stadacona (modern day Quebec City)
Cartier's trip to NA was the ____ French trip made in the 16th century.
Who is Frobisher?
- A British sailor comissioned to travel to NA in search of NW Passage in 1576.
- It is believed he finds gold, and so much money is invested for a large return trip.
- 1577 was the second voyage during which he fought with the Inuit.
- 1578 was the third voyage, which failed to find anything more than fool's gold.