Second Emt Deck

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Second Emt Deck
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2012-06-16 11:25:18
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  1. palmar
    The front region of the hand.
  2. palpate
    Examine by touch
  3. pancreas
    A flat, solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach; it is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin.
  4. pancreatitis
    Inflammation of the pancreas.
  5. paradoxical motion
    The motion of the chest wall section that is detached in a flail chest; the motion is exactly the opposite of normal motion during breathing (ie, in during inhalation, out during exhalation).
  6. partial airway obstruction
    Condition in which an obstruction leaves the patient able to exchange some air, but also causes some degree of respiratory distress.
  7. partial-thickness burn
    A burn affecting the epidermis and some portion of the dermis but not the subcutaneous tissue, characterized by blisters and skin that is white to red, moist, and mottled; traditionally called a second-degree burn.
  8. patent
    Open, clear of obstruction.
  9. pathogen
    A microorganism that is capable of causing disease in a susceptible host.
  10. pediatric assessment triangle (PAT)
    A structured assessment tool that allows you to rapidly form a general impression of the infant or child without touching him or her; consists of assessing appearance, work of breathing, and circulation to the skin.
  11. pediatric resuscitation tape measure
    A tape used to estimate an infant or child's weight on the basis of length; appropriate drug doses and equipment sizes are listed on the tape.
  12. pelvic inflammatory disease
    An infection of the fallopian tubes and the surounding tissues of the pelvis.
  13. per os (PO)
    Through the mouth; a medication delivery route; same as oral.
  14. per rectum (PR)
    Through the rectum; a medication delivery route.
  15. perfusion
    The flow of blood through body tissues and vessels.
  16. pericardial tamponade
    Compression of the heart due to a buildup of blood or other fluid in the pericardial sac.
  17. pericardium
    The fibrous sac that surrounds the heart.
  18. perineum
    The area of skin between the vagina and the anus.
  19. peristalsis
    The wave-like contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents.
  20. peritoneal cavity
    The abdominal cavity.
  21. peritonitis
    Inflammation of the peritoneum.
  22. peritoneum
    The membrane lining the abdominal cavity (parietal peritoneum) and covering the abdominal organs (visceral peritoneum).
  23. persistency
    Term used to describe how long a chemical agent will stay on a surface before it evaporates.
  24. phlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein. Often associated with a clot in the vein.
  25. phosgene
    A pulmonary agent that is a product of combustion, such as might be produced in a fire at a textile factory or house, or from metalwork or burning Freon. Phosgene is a very potent agent that has a delayed onset of symptoms, usually hours
  26. phosgene oxime (CX)
    A blistering agent that has a rapid onset of symptoms and produces immediate intense pain and discomfort on contact.
  27. pin-indexing system
    A system established for portable cylinders to ensure that a regulator is not connected to a cylinder containing the wrong type of gas.
  28. pinna
    The external, visible part of the ear.
  29. placenta
    The tissue attached to the uterine wall that nourishes the fetus through the umbilical cord.
  30. placenta abruptio
    A premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus.
  31. placenta previa
    A condition in which the placenta develops over and covers the cervix.
  32. plantar
    The bottom of the foot.
  33. plasma
    A sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion.
  34. platelets
    Tiny, disk-shaped elements that are much smaller than the cells; they are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot, the mechanism that stops bleeding.
  35. pleura
    The serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space.
  36. pleural effusion
    A collection of fluid between the lung and chest wall that may compress the lung.
  37. pleural space
    The potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. It is described as "potential" because under normal conditions, the lungs fill this space.
  38. pleuritic chest pain
    Sharp, stabbing pain in the chest that is worsened by a deep breath or other chest wall movement; often caused by inflammation or irritation of the pleura.
  39. pneumatic antishock garment (PASG)
    An inflatable device that covers the legs and abdomen; used to splint the lower extremities or pelvis or to control bleeding in the lower extremities, pelvis, or abdominal cavity.
  40. pneumonia
    An infectious disease of the lung that damages lung tissue.
  41. pneumonic plague
    A lung infection, also known as plague pneumonia, that is the result of inhalation of plague bacteria.
  42. pneumothorax
    A partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space.
  43. point tenderness
    Tenderness that is sharply localized at the site of the injury, found by gently palpating along the bone with the tip of one finger.
  44. polydipsia
    Excessive thirst persisting for long periods of time despite reasonable fluid intake; often the result of excessive urination.
  45. polyphagia
    Excessive eating; in diabetes, the inability to use glucose properly can cause a sense of hunger.
  46. polyuria
    The passage of an unusually large volume of urine in a given period; in diabetes, this can result from wasting of glucose in the urine.
  47. poor air exchange
    A term used to describe the degree of distress in a patient with a partial airway obstruction. With poor air exchange, the patient often has a weak, ineffective cough, increased difficulty breathing, or possible cyanosis and may produce a high-pitched noise during inhalation (stridor).
  48. portable stretcher
    A stretcher with a strong rectangular tubular metal frame and rigid fabric stretched across it.
  49. position of function
    A hand position in which the wrist is slightly dorsiflexed and all finger joints are moderately flexed.
  50. postictal state
    Period following a seizure that lasts between 5 and 30 minutes, characterized by labored respirations and some degree of altered mental status.
  51. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    A delayed stress reaction to a prior incident. This delayed reaction is often the result of one or more unresolved issues concerning the incident.
  52. precedence
    Basing current action on lessons, rules, or guidelines derived from previous similar experiences.
  53. preeclampsia
    A condition of late pregnancy that involves headache, visual changes, and swelling of the hands and feet; also called pregnancy-induced hypertension.
  54. pregnancy-induced hypertension
    A condition of late pregnancy that involves headache, visual changes, and swelling of the hands and feet; also called preeclampsia.
  55. presentation
    The position in which an infant is born; the part of the infant that appears first.
  56. priapism
    A continuous and painful erection of the penis caused by certain spinal injuries and some diseases.
  57. primigravida
    A woman who is experiencing her first pregnancy.
  58. primipara
    A woman who has had one live birth.
  59. prolapse of the umbilical cord
    A situation in which the umbilical cord comes out of the vagina before the infant.
  60. prone position
    The position in which the body is lying face down.
  61. psychogenic shock
    Shock caused by a sudden, temporary reduction in blood supply to the brain that causes fainting (syncope).
  62. pulmonary artery
    The major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs; it carries oxygen-poor blood.
  63. pulmonary contusion
    A bruise of the lung.
  64. pulmonary edema
    A buildup of fluid in the lungs, usually as a result of congestive heart failure.
  65. pulmonary embolism
    A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow.
  66. pulmonary veins
    The four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
  67. pulse oximetry
    An assessment tool that measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the capillary beds.
  68. putrefaction
    Decomposition of body tissues.
  69. quality control
    The responsibility of the medical director to ensure that the appropriate medical care standards are met by EMT-Bs on each call.
  70. raccoon eyes
    Bruising under the eyes that may indicate skull fracture.
  71. radiation
    The transfer of heat to colder objects in the environment by radiant energy, for example heat gain from a fire.
  72. rales
    Crackling, rattling, breath sound that signals fluid in the air spaces of the lungs; also called crackles.
  73. rapid extrication technique
    A technique to move a patient from a sitting position inside a vehicle to supine on a backboard in less than 1 minute when conditions do not allow for standard immobilization.
  74. rapport
    A trusting relationship that you build with your patient.
  75. receptive aphasia
    A speech disorder in which a person has trouble understanding speech but is able to speak clearly.
  76. recovery position
    A side-lying position used to maintain a clear airway in unconscious patients without injuries who are breathing adequately.
  77. red blood cells
    Cells that carry oxygen to the body's tissues; also called erythrocytes.
  78. reduce
    Return a dislocated joint or fractured bone to its normal position; set.
  79. referred pain
    Pain felt in an area of the body other than the area where the cause of pain is located.
  80. rehabilitation area
    The area that provides protection and treatment to fire fighters and other personnel working at an emergency. Here, workers are medically monitored and receive any needed care as they enter and leave the scene.
  81. renal pelvis
    A cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.
  82. repeater
    A special base station radio that receives messages and signals on one frequency and then automatically retransmits them on a second frequency.
  83. respiration
    The loss of body heat as warm air in the lungs is exhaled into the atmosphere and cooler air is inhaled.
  84. retractions
    Movements in which the skin pulls in around the ribs during inspiration.
  85. retrograde amnesia
    The inability to remember events leading up to a head injury.
  86. retroperitoneal
    Behind the abdominal cavity.
  87. reverse triage
    A triage process in which efforts are focused on those who are in respiratory and cardiac arrest, and different from conventional triage where such patients would be classified as deceased. Used in triaging multiple victims of a lightning strike.
  88. rhonchi
    Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the upper airways.
  89. ricin
    Neurotoxin derived from mash that is left from the castor bean; causes pulmonary edema and respiratory and circulatory failure, leading to death.
  90. rigor mortis
    Stiffening of the body; a definitive sign of death.
  91. route of exposure
    Manner by which a toxic substance enters the body.
  92. Rule of Nines
    A system that assigns percentages to sections of the body, allowing calculation of the amount of skin surface involved in the burn area.
  93. SAMPLE history
    A brief history of a patient's condition to determine signs and symptoms, allergies, medications, pertinent past history, last oral intake, and events leading to the injury or illness.
  94. sarin (GB)
    A nerve agent that is one of the G agents; a highly volatile colorless and odorless liquid that turns from liquid to gas within seconds to minutes at room temperature.
  95. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)
    Potentially life-threatening viral infection that usually starts with flu-like symptoms.
  96. scene size-up
    A quick assessment of the scene and the surroundings made to provide information about its safety and the mechanism of injury or nature of illness, before you enter and begin patient care.
  97. scoop stretcher
    A stretcher that is designed to be split into two or four sections that can be fitted around a patient who is lying on the ground or other relatively flat surface; also called a split litter.
  98. seat belt-type fractures
    Fractures that involve flexion, with a distraction component (energy being dispersed in two opposite directions) that causes a fracture through the entire vertebral body and bony arch; typically results from an ejection or occurs in those wearing only a lap belt without a shoulder harness.
  99. secondary device
    Additional explosives used by terrorists, which are set to explode after the initial bomb.
  100. sedative
    A substance that decreases activity and excitement.
  101. self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
    Respirator with independent air supply used by firefighters to enter toxic and otherwise dangerous atmospheres.
  102. Sellick maneuver
    A technique that is used to prevent gastric distention in which pressure is applied to the cricoid cartilage; also referred to as cricoid pressure.
  103. seminal vesicles
    Storage sacs for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate.
  104. sensitization
    Developing a sensitivity to a substance that initially caused no allergic reaction.
  105. septic shock
    Shock caused by severe infection, usually a bacterial infection.
  106. shaken baby syndrome
    Bleeding within the head and damage to the cervical spine of an infant who has been intentionally and forcibly shaken; a form of child abuse.
  107. shock
    A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation so that every body part can perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.
  108. shock position
    The position that has the head and torso (trunk) supine and the lower extremities elevated 6" to 12". This helps to increase blood flow to the brain; also referred to as the modified Trendelenburg's position.
  109. shunt
    A tube that diverts excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain to the abdomen.
  110. side effects
    Any effects of a medication other than the desired ones.
  111. signs
    Objective findings that can be seen, heard, felt, smelled, or measured.
  112. simple access
    Access that is easily achieved without the use of tools or force.
  113. simplex
    Single-frequency radio; transmissions can occur in either direction but not simultaneously in both; when one party transmits, the other can only receive, and the party that is transmitting is unable to receive.
  114. sniffing position
    An unusually upright position in which the patient's head and chin are thrust slightly forward
  115. solid organs
    Solid masses of tissue where much of the chemical work of the body takes place (eg, the liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys).
  116. soman (GD)
    A nerve agent that is one of the G agents; twice as persistent as sarin and five times as lethal; it has a fruity odor, as a result of the type of alcohol used in the agent, and is both a contact and inhalation hazard that can enter the body through skin absorption and through the respiratory tract.
  117. spina bifida
    A developmental defect in which a portion of the spinal cord or meninges may protrude outside of the vertebrae and possibly even outside of the body, usually at the lower third of the spine in the lumbar area
  118. spontaneous pneumothorax
    A pneumothorax that occurs when a weak area on the lung ruptures in the absence of major injury, allowing air to leak into the pleural space.
  119. sprain
    A joint injury involving damage to supporting ligaments, and sometimes partial or temporary dislocation of bone ends.
  120. stable spinal injury
    A spinal injury that has a low risk of leading to permanent neurologic deficit or structural deformity.
  121. stair chair
    A lightweight folding device that is used to carry a conscious, seated patient up or down stairs.
  122. status epilepticus
    A condition in which seizures recur every few minutes, or last more than 30 minutes.
  123. strain
    Stretching or tearing of a muscle; also called a muscle pull.
  124. stridor
    A harsh, high-pitched, crowing inspiratory sound, such as the sound often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction.
  125. stroke
    A loss of brain function in certain brain cells that do not get enough oxygen during a CVA. Usually caused by obstruction of the blood vessels in the brain that feed oxygen to those brain cells.
  126. stylet
    A plastic-coated wire that gives added rigidity and shape to the endotracheal tube.
  127. subcutaneous emphysema
    The presence of air in soft tissues, causing a characteristic crackling sensation on palpation.
  128. sublingual (SL)
    Under the tongue; a medication delivery route.
  129. sucking chest wound
    An open or penetrating chest wall wound through which air passes during inspiration and expiration, creating a sucking sound.
  130. suction catheter
    A hollow, cylindrical device used to remove fluid from the patient's airway.
  131. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
    Death of an infant or young child that remains unexplained after a complete autopsy.
  132. sulfur mustard (H)
    A vesicant; it is a brownish-yellowish oily substance that is generally considered very persistent; has the distinct smell of garlic or mustard and, when released, it is quickly absorbed into the skin and/or mucous membranes and begins an irreversible process of damaging the cells.
  133. superficial burn
    A burn affecting only the epidermis, characterized by skin that is red but not blistered or actually burned through; traditionally called a first-degree burn.
  134. superior vena cava
    One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.
  135. supine hypotensive syndrome
    Low blood pressure resulting from compression of the inferior vena cava by the weight of the pregnant uterus when the mother is supine.
  136. suspension
    A mixture of ground particles that are distributed evenly throughout a liquid but do not dissolve.
  137. swathe
    A bandage that passes around the chest to secure an injured arm to the chest.
  138. symptoms
    Subjective findings that the patient feels but that can be identified only by the patient.
  139. syncope
    Fainting spell or transient loss of consciousness.
  140. syndromic surveillance
    The monitoring, usually by local or state health departments, of patients presenting to emergency departments and alternative care facilities, the recording of EMS call volume, and the use of over-the-counter medications.
  141. systemic complication
    Moderate to severe complication affecting the systems of the body; after administration of medications, the reaction might be systemic.
  142. systole
    The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially that of the ventricles.
  143. systolic pressure
    The increased pressure along an artery with each contraction (systole) of the ventricles.
  144. tabun (GA)
    A nerve agent that is one of the G agents; is 36 times more persistent than sarin and approximately half as lethal; has a fruity smell and is unique because the components used to manufacture the agent are easy to acquire and the agent is easy to manufacture.
  145. tachycardia
    Rapid heart rhythm, more than 100 beats/min.
  146. tachypnea
    Rapid respirations.
  147. tactical situation
    A hostage, robbery, or other situation in which armed conflict is threatened or shots have been fired and the threat of violence remains.
  148. telemetry
    A process in which electronic signals are converted into coded, audible signals; these signals can then be transmitted by radio or telephone to a receiver at the hospital with a decoder.
  149. tendon
    A tough, ropelike cord of fibrous tissue that attaches a skeletal muscle to a bone.
  150. tension pneumothorax
    An accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity that progressively increases the pressure in the chest with potentially fatal results.
  151. tenting
    A condition in which the skin does not quickly return to its original shape after being pinched; indicates dehydration.
  152. thorax
    The chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels (the aorta and the two venae cavae).
  153. thrombosis
    Clotting of the cerebral arteries that may result in the interruption of cerebral blood flow and subsequent stroke.
  154. thyroid cartilage
    A firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx; the Adam's apple.
  155. tidal volume
    The amount of air that is exchanged with each breath.
  156. tonic-clonic
    A type of seizure that features rhythmic back-and-forth motion of an extremity and body stiffness.
  157. tonsil tips
    Large, semirigid suction tips recommended for suctioning the pharynx; also called Yankauer tips.
  158. topographic anatomy
    The superficial landmarks of the body that serve as guides to the structures that lie beneath them.
  159. tourniquet
    The bleeding control method of last resort that occludes arterial flow; used only when all other methods have failed and the patient's life is in danger.
  160. toxicity levels
    Measures of the risk that a hazardous material poses to the health of an individual who comes into contact with it.
  161. toxin
    A poison or harmful substance.
  162. trachea
    The windpipe; the main trunk for air passing to and from the lungs.
  163. tracheostomy tube
    A tube inserted into the trachea in children who cannot breathe on their own; passes through the neck directly into the major airways.
  164. trade name
    The brand name that a manufacturer gives a medication; the name is capitalized.
  165. tragus
    The small, rounded, fleshy bulge that lies immediately anterior to the ear canal.
  166. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    A disorder of the brain in which brain cells temporarily stop working because of insufficient oxygen, causing stroke-like symptoms that resolve completely within 24 hours of onset.
  167. transition phase
    A time period that allows the infant or child to become familiar with you and your equipment; only appropriate if the child's condition is stable.
  168. Trendelenburg''s position
    The position in which the body is supine with the head lower than the feet.
  169. triage
    The process of establishing treatment and transportation priorities according to severity of injury and medical need.
  170. triage area
    Designated area in a mass-casualty incident where the triage officer is located and patients are initially triaged before being taken to the treatment center.
  171. tripod position
    An upright position in which the patient leans forward onto two arms stretched forward and thrusts the head and chin forward.
  172. tuberculosis
    A chronic bacterial disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, that usually affects the lungs but can also affect other organs such as the brain or kidneys.
  173. turbinates
    Layers of bone within the nasal cavity.
  174. turgor
    The ability of the skin to resist deformation; tested by gently pinching skin on the forehead or back of the hand.
  175. two- to three-word dyspnea
    A severe breathing problem in which a patient can speak only two to three words at a time without pausing to take a breath.
  176. tympanic membrane
    The eardrum, which lies between the external and middle ear.
  177. type I diabetes
    The type of diabetic disease that usually starts in childhood and requires insulin for proper treatment and control.
  178. type II diabetes
    The type of diabetic disease that usually starts in later life and often can be controlled through diet and oral medications.
  179. UHF (ultra-high frequency)
    Radio frequencies between 300 and 3,000 MHz.
  180. ulcer
    Erosion of the stomach or intestinal lining.
  181. universal precautions
    Protective measures that have traditionally been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for use in dealing with objects, blood, body fluids, or other potential exposure risks of communicable disease.
  182. unstable spinal injury
    A spinal injury that has a high risk of permanent neurologic deficit or structural deformity.
  183. ureter
    A small, hollow tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  184. urethra
    The canal that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body.
  185. urinary bladder
    A sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores urine.
  186. urticaria
    Small spots of generalized itching and/or burning that appear as multiple raised areas on the skin; hives.
  187. uterus
    The muscular organ where the fetus grows, also called the womb; responsible for contractions during labor.
  188. vasoconstriction
     Narrowing of a blood vessel.
  189. vasodilation
    The widening of a blood vessel.
  190. vasovagal reaction
    Sudden hypotension and fainting associated with traumatic or medical events.
  191. veins 
    The blood vessels that carry blood from the tissues to the heart.
  192. ventral
    The anterior surface of the body.
  193. ventricular fibrillation
     Disorganized, ineffective twitching of the ventricles, resulting in no blood flow and a state of cardiac arrest.
  194. ventricular tachycardia
    The presence of three or more abnormal ventricular complexes in a row with a rate of more than 100 beats/min.
  195. vertebrae
    The 33 bones that make up the spinal column.
  196. virulence
    The strength or ability of a pathogen to produce disease.
  197. vital signs
    The key signs that are used to evaluate the patient's overall condition, including respirations, pulse, blood pressure, level of consciousness, and skin characteristics.
  198. wheal
    A raised, swollen, well-defined area on the skin resulting from an insect bite or allergic reaction.
  199. wheezing
    A high-pitched, whistling breath sound, characteristically heard on expiration in patients with asthma or COPD.

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