Exam 1: Axilla
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Exam 1: Axilla
review of 6/8 lecture on the axilla for exam 1
What is the purpose of the axilla?
provides continuity between cervical region and upper extermity
provides passageway for vessels, nerves, and lymphatics destined for the upper extremity
What is the shape of the axilla?
pyramidal space with four sides, a base and an apex
What are the boundaries of the axilla?
What forms the anterior wall of the axilla?
clavicle, pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
What forms the anterior axillary fold?
lateral portions of pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
What forms the posterior wall of the axilla?
scapula, subscapularis, teres major and latissimus dorsi
What forms the posterior axillary fold?
teres major and latissimus dorsi
What forms the medial wall of the axilla?
ribs, intercostal mm. and serratus anterior
What forms the lateral wall of the axilla?
intertubercular sulcus of humerus containing the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii
What forms the base of the axilla?
skin and superficial fascia of armpit
What forms the apex of the axilla?
clavicle (ant), scapula (post), and first rib (medial)
What is the apex of the axilla?
the junction between axilla and the neck
What is contained in the axilla?
cords of brachial plexus
axillary lymph nodes
What is the axillary a. a continuation of?
Where does the axillary a. begin?
lateral border of first rib at apex of axilla
Where does the axillary a. end?
lower border of teres major m.
How many parts are there of the axilla?
Where does the first part of the axillary a. appear?
between first rib and medial border of pectoralis minor
What is/are the branch(es) of the first part of the axillary a?
supreme thoracic a.
Where does the second part of the axillary a. appear?
deep to pectoralis minor
What are the branches of the second part of the axillary a?
lateral thoracic a.
Where does the third part of the axillary a. appear?
lateral to lateral border of pectoralis minor
What are the branches of the third part of the axillary a?
anterior humeral circumflex a.
posterior humeral circumflex a.
What is contained in the axillary sheath?
axillary a. and cords
What is the axillary v. a continuation of?
bascilic v. in arm
Where does the axillary v. begin?
at lower border of teres major
Where does the axillary v. terminate?
lateral border of first rib where it becomes continuous with the subclavian v.
The axillary v. has tributaries that correspond to:
branches of axillary a.
How many axillary lymph nodes are there?
Is there a sharp distinction between groups of axillary lymph nodes?
What are the subgroups of the axillary lymph nodes?
Where are the apical nodes located?
medially on proximal part of axillary v. close to apex
Which node(s) does the apical node receive lymph from?
all other axillary nodes
The apical node gives rise to:
subclavian lymph trunk
The apical node connects with the:
supraclavicular nodes in the neck
Where are the central nodes of the axilla located?
on axillary v. posterior to pectoralis minor
Which node(s) does the central node receive lymph from?
lateral, subscapular, and pectoral
The central node sends lymph to:
Where are the lateral nodes of the axilla located?
distal part of axillary v.
Where does the lateral node receive lymph from?
upper extremity, but not the shoulder
The lateral node sends lymph to:
Where are the subscapular nodes of the axilla located?
next to subscapular a. and v.
The subscapular nodes send lymph to:
Where are the pectoral nodes of the axilla located?
adjacent to lateral thoracic a. and v.
Where do the pectoral nodes receive lymph from?
breast and anterior thoracic wall
The pectoral nodes send lymph to:
The muscle tendons contained in the axilla include:
biceps brachii- short head
biceps brachii- long head
Collateral circulation of the scapular is:
Where can the axillary a. be ligated?
between thyrocervical trunk and subscapular a.
If the axillary a. is ligated between the thyrocervical trunk and subscapular a., what happens to blood flow?
blood flow in the subscapular a. becomes reversed and arterial blood reaches the distal portion of the axillary a.
Subscapular a. receives blood via:
several anastomoses with suprascapular, transverse cervical, and some intercostal aa.
Ligation of axillary a. distal to subscapular a. is: