Exam 1: Axilla

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brau2308
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158225
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Exam 1: Axilla
Updated:
2012-06-11 16:21:35
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anatomy axilla
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review of 6/8 lecture on the axilla for exam 1
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  1. What is the purpose of the axilla?
    • provides continuity between cervical region and upper extermity
    • provides passageway for vessels, nerves, and lymphatics destined for the upper extremity
  2. What is the shape of the axilla?
    pyramidal space with four sides, a base and an apex
  3. What are the boundaries of the axilla?
    • anterior wall
    • posterior wall
    • medial wall
    • lateral wall
    • base
    • apex
  4. What forms the anterior wall of the axilla?
    clavicle, pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
  5. What forms the anterior axillary fold?
    lateral portions of pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
  6. What forms the posterior wall of the axilla?
    scapula, subscapularis, teres major and latissimus dorsi
  7. What forms the posterior axillary fold?
    teres major and latissimus dorsi
  8. What forms the medial wall of the axilla?
    ribs, intercostal mm. and serratus anterior
  9. What forms the lateral wall of the axilla?
    intertubercular sulcus of humerus containing the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii
  10. What forms the base of the axilla?
    skin and superficial fascia of armpit
  11. What forms the apex of the axilla?
    clavicle (ant), scapula (post), and first rib (medial)
  12. What is the apex of the axilla?
    the junction between axilla and the neck
  13. What is contained in the axilla?
    • cords of brachial plexus
    • axillary a.
    • axillary v.
    • axillary lymph nodes
    • muscle tendons
  14. What is the axillary a. a continuation of?
    subclavian a.
  15. Where does the axillary a. begin?
    lateral border of first rib at apex of axilla
  16. Where does the axillary a. end?
    lower border of teres major m.
  17. How many parts are there of the axilla?
    3
  18. Where does the first part of the axillary a. appear?
    between first rib and medial border of pectoralis minor
  19. What is/are the branch(es) of the first part of the axillary a?
    supreme thoracic a.
  20. Where does the second part of the axillary a. appear?
    deep to pectoralis minor
  21. What are the branches of the second part of the axillary a?
    • thoracoacromial trunk
    • lateral thoracic a.
  22. Where does the third part of the axillary a. appear?
    lateral to lateral border of pectoralis minor
  23. What are the branches of the third part of the axillary a?
    • subscapular
    • anterior humeral circumflex a.
    • posterior humeral circumflex a.
  24. What is contained in the axillary sheath?
    axillary a. and cords
  25. What is the axillary v. a continuation of?
    bascilic v. in arm
  26. Where does the axillary v. begin?
    at lower border of teres major
  27. Where does the axillary v. terminate?
    lateral border of first rib where it becomes continuous with the subclavian v.
  28. The axillary v. has tributaries that correspond to:
    branches of axillary a.
  29. How many axillary lymph nodes are there?
    12-36
  30. Is there a sharp distinction between groups of axillary lymph nodes?
    NO
  31. What are the subgroups of the axillary lymph nodes?
    • apical (infraclavicular)
    • central
    • lateral
    • subscapular
    • pectoral
  32. Where are the apical nodes located?
    medially on proximal part of axillary v. close to apex
  33. Which node(s) does the apical node receive lymph from?
    all other axillary nodes
  34. The apical node gives rise to:
    subclavian lymph trunk
  35. The apical node connects with the:
    supraclavicular nodes in the neck
  36. Where are the central nodes of the axilla located?
    on axillary v. posterior to pectoralis minor
  37. Which node(s) does the central node receive lymph from?
    lateral, subscapular, and pectoral
  38. The central node sends lymph to:
    apical nodes
  39. Where are the lateral nodes of the axilla located?
    distal part of axillary v.
  40. Where does the lateral node receive lymph from?
    upper extremity, but not the shoulder
  41. The lateral node sends lymph to:
    central nodes
  42. Where are the subscapular nodes of the axilla located?
    next to subscapular a. and v.
  43. The subscapular nodes send lymph to:
    central nodes
  44. Where are the pectoral nodes of the axilla located?
    adjacent to lateral thoracic a. and v.
  45. Where do the pectoral nodes receive lymph from?
    breast and anterior thoracic wall
  46. The pectoral nodes send lymph to:
    central nodes
  47. The muscle tendons contained in the axilla include:
    • coracobrachialis
    • biceps brachii- short head
    • biceps brachii- long head
  48. Collateral circulation of the scapular is:
    extensive
  49. Where can the axillary a. be ligated?
    between thyrocervical trunk and subscapular a.
  50. If the axillary a. is ligated between the thyrocervical trunk and subscapular a., what happens to blood flow?
    blood flow in the subscapular a. becomes reversed and arterial blood reaches the distal portion of the axillary a.
  51. Subscapular a. receives blood via:
    several anastomoses with suprascapular, transverse cervical, and some intercostal aa.
  52. Ligation of axillary a. distal to subscapular a. is:
    medical malpractice

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