Land Ocean

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Author:
anime1003
ID:
158266
Filename:
Land Ocean
Updated:
2012-06-19 14:41:00
Tags:
Protected Areas
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Description:
Test #2
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  1. 3 main types of protected areas
    Marine reserve, Wildlife Sanctuary, National Park
  2. Categories of Proteced areas: 1a
    Strict nature/wilderness: preserve protection area mainly managed for science or wilderness protection
  3. Categories of Protected Areas: 1b
    Wilderness area protected and manages mainly for wilderness protection
  4. Category of Proteced Areas: 2
    National park: protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation
  5. Category of Protected Areas: 3
    Natural monument: conservation of natural features
  6. Category of Protected Area: 4
    Habitat/species management area: conservation through management intervention
  7. Category of Protected Area: 5
    Protected landscapes/seascapes: managed for conservation or recreation
  8. Category of Protected Area: 6
    Manage resource area: sustainable natural resources
  9. National Park
    protection and preservation of natural and scenic value of national significance for the benefit and enjoyment of the general public
  10. Natural Monument
    preservation of nationally significant natural features of special interest or unique characteristics
  11. Nature Reserve
    reserved for scientific site for the protection of nature be it biological communities or species and maintain natural process in an undisturbed environment
  12. Wildlife Sanctuary
    protection of nationally significant species, groups of species, biotic communities or physical features of the environment requiring specific human manipulation for success
  13. Marine Reserve
    • protection of aquatic flora and fauna to protect
    • and preserve natural breeding grounds, and promote scientific study
  14. Forest reserve
    preservation of valuable forest products from clearing for cultivation and to secure land for re-forestation efforts
  15. Reasons for Protection (8)
    • Natural heritage
    • Critical habitat or species
    • Preserve resource
    • Cultural significance
    • Maintain natural process
    • Biodiversity
    • Recreation and Research
    • Tourism
  16. Role of Protected Areas (11)
    • Value of biodiversity
    • Preserve biodiversity
    • Preserve genetic diversity
    • Maintain ecological processes
    • Sustainable use
    • Commercial valuable species
    • Replenish depleted stocks
    • Education & research
    • Protection from Natural Hazard
    • Recreation & tourism
    • Social & economic benefits
  17. 4 goals of the NAPASP
    • Be comprehensive, with representative examples of all ecosystems in the country
    • Be integrated with regional and national approaches promoting biological connectedness
    • Economic, social and ecological sustainability
    • Management of the system will be transparent, geared towards delivery of measurable benefits and emphasise public participation at all levels.
  18. Methods and Underlying Principals (6)
    • Ecosystem Approach.
    • Precautionary Principle.
    • Importance of Science.
    • Importance of Local and Indigenous Community Knowledge.
    • Monitoring and Evaluation.
    • Cost-effectiveness and Efficiency.
  19. 4 possible achievement results
    • One: Formulation of comprehensive protective area policy.
    • Two: Protected Area System Assessment and Analysis.
    • Three: Management Procedures and Sustainable Use.
    • Four: Strengthening Management and Monitoring.
  20. 4 sections of the report
    • The National Protected Area Policy.
    • The National Protected Area Systems Plan,
    • The Consolidated Report
    • The Appendices,
  21. Protected areas represent approximately _____ of Belize’s terrestrial areas and ____ of its
    marine area.
    36%, 13 %
  22. Objective and Scope of NPASP
    The general objective of this policy document is to provide a set of guiding principles for the declaration, modification and re-designation; management and administration; socio-economic assessment and analysis; ecological assessment and analysis, and monitoring and evaluation of marine and terrestrial protected areas in Belize.
  23. 4 things the Government of Belize will do
    • 1. Assure, for all Belizeans, safe, healthy, productive, aesthetically and culturally pleasing surroundings by preserving important historic, cultural, aesthetic and natural aspects of Belize’s natural heritage;
    • 2. Promote the widest range of beneficial uses of biodiversity without degradation, risk to health or safety, or other undesirable and unintended
    • consequences in order to provide for sustainable economic development;
    • 3. Achieve a balance between population and biodiversity resource use which will permit a higher standard of living and the conservation of natural
    • resources for future generations;
    • 4. Enhance the quality of renewable resources and strive for the optimum use
    • of non-renewable resources.
  24. 4 objectives of THE NATIONAL PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM PLAN
    • 1: An enabling administrative structure is established for policy implementation.
    • 2: The national protected area system is functional.
    • 3: The national protected area system is comprehensive.
    • 4: The national protected area system is consolidated and simplified.
  25. To fulfil the national protected area policy the system must be:
    • Representative and comprehensive, containing viable examples of all ecosystems;
    • Large enough to maintain the ecological processes and ecosystem dynamics that maintain their biodiversity and provide the environmental goods and services that support sustainable development;
    • Designed to include critical habitat for species of conservation concern or in need of special conservation measures as well as areas of exceptional scenic or cultural importance;
    • Interconnected, linked by functional biological corridors both within Belize and across its frontiers.
  26. Gap Analysis
    This compares targets with actual coverage, so identifying where there are gaps and where targets are met or exceeded
  27. MARXAN
    This conservation planning tool analyses the distribution of a set of given ‘conservation features’ across the national territory and selects ‘best options’ for their inclusion in the protected area system
  28. Policy Implimentation (groups targeted)
    • Local communities and indigenous people.
    • Commercial interests.
    • Recreational users of protected areas.
    • The international conservation and scientific community.
  29. Four types of governance of protected areas can be distinguished:
    • By government:
    • *Joint governance (co-management):
    • Private governance:
    • Community governance:
  30. Joint governance (co-management):
    • Authority, responsibility and accountability are shared among a variety of concerned parties, which are likely to include government agencies, local communities, private landowners and other
    • stakeholders
  31. Capacity building and support services
    • Skills training.
    • Site administration/management support services.
    • Legal advice.
    • Enforcement
  32. ___% of the world is covered in water
    74%
  33. 3 factors of water demand
    • population growth
    • industrial developement
    • expansion of irrigated agriculture
  34. 4 consequences of water development
    • falling water tables
    • diminished surface water
    • sinkholes
    • saltwater intrusion
  35. Subduction Zone
    less dense plates slide over more dense plates
  36. First organism is how old
    3.4 billion years old
  37. headwaters
    1-3 order streams, contain most of the total stream length
  38. Mid-reaches
    • shallow
    • clear,
    • wide
    • (more algae)
  39. Lower reaches
    • floodplains,
    • muddy,
    • sunlight doesn't reach the bottem
  40. Transition Belts
    places where the stream order changes
  41. Simpsons index of Diversity
    D=1-∑(pi)^2
  42. Properties of the Shannon-Weiner Index of Diversity
    • Random Sampling
    • Infinatley large population
    • all species in the community are represented
    • Larger H means more Diversity
    • P is porportional of the individuals of the 'i-th'species
    • H’=-∑pi ln(pi)
  43. Equation for Eveness
    E= H’/Ln S
  44. In the equation for evenness, S represents
    # of species, species richness
  45. pelagic
    all open water
  46. Benthic
    sea bottom
  47. neritic
    overlies continetal shelf
  48. oceanic zone
    all open water
  49. Photic zone
    lighted part of the ocean
  50. aphotic
    no light pennetration
  51. Mesopelagic
    upper part of the aphotic zone
  52. bathylpelagic
    below the mesopelagic
  53. abyssal pelagic
    plains of the ocean floor
  54. Hadalpelagic
    ocean deep in a trench
  55. Planktontrophic
    manny eggs, feed on plankton
  56. lecithotrophic
    fewer eggs, spend less time in the water colum
  57. Non-pelagic/juvinile
    • no free swimming, few eggs, hatch as juviniles
    • (Whales)

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