Microbio 2

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Microbio 2
2012-06-13 02:41:14

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  1. Difference between Mutation and Horizontal gene transfer?
    • Mutation (Vertical gene transfer) passes DNA to offspring - all inherited
    • Hortizonal Gene Transfer is from the enviorment, gaining DNA from other cells
    • - Transformation - Transduction - Conjugation - Transposition
  2. Whipple's diease is a rare intestinal disease. The causative agent could not be cultured we identify it by....
    PCR? FISH? Restrication Anaylsis?
    PCR of rDNA
  3. Serology
    Antibodies against specific antigens
  4. Determine Antiboiotic susceptibility?
  5. No plasmid is what letter and sign
  6. DNA injected into a cell by a phage capsid is
  7. DNA entering a cell that does not have a replicon must undergo _________ to become part of the host cell genome and be passed on the the daughter cell
  8. Describe why a dichotomous key is used for indentifcations of bacteria
    • It is a flow chart of tests that give either a positive or negative result
    • It indentifies a microbe based on a series of tests which allow a process of eliminatin pattern.
  9. Mutltilocus sequence testing is useful for
    to tell strain apart and/or genetic patterns within a species - True
  10. First group for probaly first dominate Earth
  11. 30% of the bacteria in human feces
  12. plant symbionts -
    Azobacter? Agrobacterium? Rhizo? Strep? Caulobacter?
  13. Obligate Aerobes =
  14. first to photosynthesize while producing oxygen as a waster product
  15. Grow well in clean water
  16. infect plants forming galls
  17. Q fever isn't that bad however it could be used as a weapon since....
    most infectious diease known
  18. Two examples of energy sources used by chemolithotrophs
    hydrogen gas, nitrates, sulfur, CO2
  19. Mycorrhizae are fungal...
    association with plant roots
  20. Nucleic acid anaylsis of eukaryotic microbes ...
    many groups for example algae, are not closely related
  21. Algae are
    - found almost everywhere
    - unicellular though also colonial or multicellular
    - help to colonize barren areas
    All are true
  22. would most likely be found growing in acidic runoff from a coal mine.
  23. The dormant forms of what genre are the most resistant to environmental extremes:
    Bacillus & Clostridium
  24. Escherichia are Coliform
    We do not want to drink coliforms although they are harmless members of our normal microbiota because that could give you some serious intestinal pain when you running to the bathroom. Coliforms represent common intestinal inhabitants such as E.coli that are easy to detect in food and water.
  25. preys on other bacteria; eats other bacteria
  26. - Mycoplasma are NOT obligate intracellular parasites.
  27. Anabaena, Azotobacter, and Rhizobium do what....
    fix nitrogen
  28. Site Directed Mutagenesis - targets a specific sequence
    • ability to change what we want
    • Start with a sequence, add any primer, this allows changes made in the genome
    • Used in the lab to make a specific change
  29. Difference between spontanous and induced mutation
    • spontaneous mutation is random genetic changes from normal cells
    • Induced mutations were intention manipulations from the enviormental or outside influnce such as chemical or UV mutagen
  30. DNA-mediated transformation
    Transformation includes naked DNA being taken up by the cell where it recombines with the cell’s genome; potential to pass it on to daughter cells
  31. Transduction (injection) into a cell
    • a. Make progeny bacteriophage
    • b. Transduces the phage (inject it) into a cell where it injects it’s bacterial DNA into the cell – host is infected – transferring of new DNA fragment
    • c. Phage --> Transducing particle
  32. Hfr =
    when the plasmid is a part of the chromosome
  33. Conjunction requires contact between donor & reciepient cell
    • F - is no plasmid (recipent)
    • F + means fertility plasmid
  34. Insertion sequence =
    inverted repeats = acts on both ends
  35. Composite: pick up antibiotics, can move cell to cell
    Composite transposon carries antibacteria resistace
  36. Chemo-litho- troph
    • inorganic chemicals - energy source
    • carbon - CO2
    • early life form
    • grab electrons from H2X
  37. Chemo organo
    Carbon source & organic compounds
  38. Photoheterotrophs
    Sun & organic compounds
  39. Photo auto troph
    Sun and CO2
  40. Sulfer / Sulfate Reducers = Anaerobic Chemoorganotrophs
    • - oxidize organic molecules for carbon & energy
    • reduces SO4 to H2S
    • Black mud when H2S reacts with iron
  41. Clostridium is an oligate fermenter
    (strict anaerobe)