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Difference between Mutation and Horizontal gene transfer?
- Mutation (Vertical gene transfer) passes DNA to offspring - all inherited
- Hortizonal Gene Transfer is from the enviorment, gaining DNA from other cells
- - Transformation - Transduction - Conjugation - Transposition
Whipple's diease is a rare intestinal disease. The causative agent could not be cultured we identify it by....
PCR? FISH? Restrication Anaylsis?
PCR of rDNA
Antibodies against specific antigens
Determine Antiboiotic susceptibility?
No plasmid is what letter and sign
DNA injected into a cell by a phage capsid is
DNA entering a cell that does not have a replicon must undergo _________ to become part of the host cell genome and be passed on the the daughter cell
Describe why a dichotomous key is used for indentifcations of bacteria
- It is a flow chart of tests that give either a positive or negative result
- It indentifies a microbe based on a series of tests which allow a process of eliminatin pattern.
Mutltilocus sequence testing is useful for
to tell strain apart and/or genetic patterns within a species - True
First group for probaly first dominate Earth
30% of the bacteria in human feces
plant symbionts -
Azobacter? Agrobacterium? Rhizo? Strep? Caulobacter?
Obligate Aerobes =
first to photosynthesize while producing oxygen as a waster product
Grow well in clean water
infect plants forming galls
Q fever isn't that bad however it could be used as a weapon since....
most infectious diease known
Two examples of energy sources used by chemolithotrophs
hydrogen gas, nitrates, sulfur, CO2
Mycorrhizae are fungal...
association with plant roots
Nucleic acid anaylsis of eukaryotic microbes ...
many groups for example algae, are not closely related
- found almost everywhere
- unicellular though also colonial or multicellular
- help to colonize barren areas
All are true
would most likely be found growing in acidic runoff from a coal mine.
The dormant forms of what genre are the most resistant to environmental extremes:
Bacillus & Clostridium
Escherichia are Coliform
We do not want to drink coliforms although they are harmless members of our normal microbiota because that could give you some serious intestinal pain when you running to the bathroom. Coliforms represent common intestinal inhabitants such as E.coli that are easy to detect in food and water.
preys on other bacteria; eats other bacteria
- Mycoplasma are NOT obligate intracellular parasites.
Anabaena, Azotobacter, and Rhizobium do what....
Site Directed Mutagenesis - targets a specific sequence
- ability to change what we want
- Start with a sequence, add any primer, this allows changes made in the genome
- Used in the lab to make a specific change
Difference between spontanous and induced mutation
- spontaneous mutation is random genetic changes from normal cells
- Induced mutations were intention manipulations from the enviormental or outside influnce such as chemical or UV mutagen
Transformation includes naked DNA being taken up by the cell where it recombines with the cell’s genome; potential to pass it on to daughter cells
Transduction (injection) into a cell
- a. Make progeny bacteriophage
- b. Transduces the phage (inject it) into a cell where it injects it’s bacterial DNA into the cell – host is infected – transferring of new DNA fragment
- c. Phage --> Transducing particle
when the plasmid is a part of the chromosome
Conjunction requires contact between donor & reciepient cell
- F - is no plasmid (recipent)
- F + means fertility plasmid
Insertion sequence =
inverted repeats = acts on both ends
Composite: pick up antibiotics, can move cell to cell
Composite transposon carries antibacteria resistace
- inorganic chemicals - energy source
- carbon - CO2
- early life form
- grab electrons from H2X
Carbon source & organic compounds
Sun & organic compounds
Photo auto troph
Sun and CO2
Sulfer / Sulfate Reducers = Anaerobic Chemoorganotrophs
- - oxidize organic molecules for carbon & energy
- reduces SO4 to H2S
- Black mud when H2S reacts with iron
Clostridium is an oligate fermenter
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