first to photosynthesize while producing oxygen as a waster product
Grow well in clean water
infect plants forming galls
Q fever isn't that bad however it could be used as a weapon since....
most infectious diease known
Two examples of energy sources used by chemolithotrophs
hydrogen gas, nitrates, sulfur, CO2
Mycorrhizae are fungal...
association with plant roots
Nucleic acid anaylsis of eukaryotic microbes ...
many groups for example algae, are not closely related
- found almost everywhere
- unicellular though also colonial or multicellular
- help to colonize barren areas
All are true
would most likely be found growing in acidic runoff from a coal mine.
The dormant forms of what genre are the most resistant to environmental extremes:
Bacillus & Clostridium
Escherichia are Coliform
We do not want to drink coliforms although they are harmless members of our normal microbiota because that could give you some serious intestinal pain when you running to the bathroom.Coliforms represent common intestinal inhabitants such as E.coli that are easy to detect in food and water.
preys on other bacteria; eats other bacteria
-Mycoplasma are NOT obligate intracellular parasites.
Anabaena, Azotobacter, and Rhizobium do what....
Site Directed Mutagenesis - targets a specific sequence
ability to change what we want
Start with a sequence, add any primer, this allows changes made in the genome
Used in the lab to make a specific change
Difference between spontanous and induced mutation
spontaneous mutation is random genetic changes from normal cells
Induced mutations were intention manipulations from the enviormental or outside influnce such as chemical or UV mutagen
Transformation includes naked DNA being taken up by the cell where it recombines with the cell’s genome; potential to pass it on to daughter cells
Transduction (injection) into a cell
a.Make progeny bacteriophage
Transduces the phage (inject it) into a cell where it injects it’s bacterial DNA into the cell – host is infected – transferring of new DNA fragment
Phage --> Transducing particle
when the plasmid is a part of the chromosome
Conjunction requires contact between donor & reciepient cell
F - is no plasmid (recipent)
F + means fertility plasmid
Insertion sequence =
inverted repeats = acts on both ends
Composite: pick up antibiotics, can move cell to cell